Research Technician Job Description

Research Technician Job Description


Clinical research technicianContext

In the race for drug companies that are engaged in pharmaceutical research, clinical trials represent a key phase of drug development and other health products. Technicians in clinical research have an important role to play to the investigator that manages and controls the conduct of research.

Clinical Research Technician Description

The technician's role in clinical research is to assist the investigator throughout the process of setting up at the end of the trial. He therefore apply the research techniques of the living. For this, he participated in patient recruitment and coordination between them and the various clinical services. He works for a university hospital or a private company, technician clinical research still assumes responsibility for the quality, reliability and authenticity of data collected.

Clinical Research Technician Main tasks

∙ Participate in meetings to set up protocols
∙ Identify and select patients in clinical studies incluables
∙ Organize their visits on time under the Protocol
∙ Take measurements on living
∙ Prepare biological samples for analysis
∙ Ensure storage (labeling, storage) in accordance with "good clinical practice"
∙ Send, if necessary, the samples to laboratories for analysis
∙ Complete the specification of investigation with patient data and format the results
∙ Follow up with the patient (adverse effects, organization of subsequent visits)
∙ Liaise with all stakeholders in research (clinicians, pharmacy, biologists, laboratories ...)
∙ Support aircraft maintenance and update their calendar of Use
cForm continuously to new techniques

Clinical Research Technician Degree

To work as a technician in clinical research, it is necessary to obtain a college diploma (DEC) in medical technology, biology ... Bachelor'sDegree in science is an advantage.

Clinical Research Technician Skills

∙ Possess a good grounding in biology
∙ Have control of research techniques in living
∙ Know the technical software and those related to the presentation of results
∙ Control office software: Word, Excel, Powerpoint, Access, Outlook
∙ Have some legal concepts about the clinical research
∙ Know business terminology in English
Research Technician Job Description
Clinical Research Technician Skills

∙ Practical and synthetic
∙ Sense of responsibility
∙ Rigorous, organized, self
∙ Able to work as a team
∙ Sense of dialogue and diplomacy

Clinical Research Technician Salary

The salary of the technician in clinical research will depend on the level of education, experience, the province in which they work and finally the characteristics of his employer (private or public). Overall, we can say that the technician in clinical research will receive remuneration ranging from 30 000 to 50 000 per year.

Clinical Research Technician Professional development

The medical research technician, after several years of experience, may wish to move to another discipline such as quality, economic studies or choose a different path such as management or training.

Pharmacy Representative

Pharmacy Representative


Pharmacy Representative Description

In a given area, the representative of Pharmacy's mission is to develop requirements for pharmacists and doctors for the products of the pharmaceutical company that employs him. There are more than 58,000 representatives in Canada are many advantages to this profession: flexible hours, high salary, company car and freedom to act important, but it is also a strong pressure from the sales department and a strong competition among pharmaceutical companies. As such, the best way to get a job is networking. In fact, companies use ads only when word of mouth did not work, and there your chances being eroded sharply: 150 responses to an offer displayed.

Personal skills are more important than the technical knowledge that can be learned during training by the employer.

Pharmacy Representative Main tasks

Analyze its territory, the sales volume and business opportunities
Develop an action plan and run
Present medications, answer objections and questions of the speaker
Organize information sessions, develop partnerships
Monitor administrative

Pharmacy Representative Degree

A bachelor's degree is required to work as a pharmacy representative, regardless of the subject followed.
Companies prefer the candidate's profile and willingness to learn scientific knowledge.
Obtaining the CCPE (Council for Continuing Pharmaceutical Education), however, is an asset.

Pharmacy Representative Skills

Have an interest in science and the pharmaceutical industry (context, developments, issues)
Master sales techniques in general and those specific to the drug ideally
Have good basic computer
Be bilingual

Skills

Taste for contact
Listening skills and persuasive
Tact and diplomacy
Intellectual curiosity
Sense of method and analysis
Pharmacy Representative

Pharmacy Representative Salary

It is known that the pharmacy representative earns a good living from the base salary, the variable premiums, excluding reimbursement of expenses. The starting salary is $ 30 000 and can reach $ 100 000.

Pharmacy Representative Professional development

The representative of the pharmacy after several years of practice may wish to change or to the sale in general - then it will abort the pharmaceutical industry - or remain in the health field to discover new business. It may then become responsible for pharmacy representatives, trainer or recruiter.

How to become a Regulatory Affairs Specialist

How to become a Regulatory Affairs Specialist


Regulatory Affairs Specialist (SAR)

The development of a company in the pharmaceutical or biotechnology requires the proper registration of its products and the periodic renewal of licenses. Obtaining approvals from regulatory agencies (Canadian, American, European) with the Therapeutic Products Directorate of Health Canada (TPD) is crucial. The main departments involved in this approval are research, development and production.

Regulatory Affairs Specialist Description

The mission of the Regulatory Affairs Specialist (SAR) is to prepare and submit applications for registration for the products of the company that employs him. Biotechnology companies, which have fewer resources than large pharmaceutical companies, prefer experienced candidates or the use of consultants. SAR plays a real strategic role, and is involved in all stages of the process, unlike its counterpart in a large group that has a position more segmented with more administrative tasks.

The SAR is averaged from 10 to 15 years in the same company, the turnover rate is low. It is recommended to encourage networking by joining various associations to participate in seminars and trade shows, and also for access to recent publications. There is currently a high demand for SAR for medical device companies.

Regulatory Affairs Specialist Main tasks

∙ Prepare, coordinate and monitor applications for registration
∙ Review compliance labels and communication equipment
∙ Develop strategies to ensure compliance with regulatory guidelines
∙ Take the steps to register the products to provincial formularies and payers
∙ Make regulatory monitoring
∙ Participate in interdepartmental meetings and conferences and symposia

Regulatory Affairs Specialist Degree

It is recommended to have a university degree in science (bachelor's, master's, doctoral) whether in biology, chemistry, toxicology, pharmacology and others.

Regulatory Affairs Specialist Skills

∙ Have a good expertise in laboratory analysis, manufacturing processes and in clinical trials
∙ Know at least the Canadian regulations (regulations about American or European is an asset)
∙ Have good knowledge in mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology
∙ The master computer
∙ Be bilingual

Skills

∙ Strategic thinking and innovative approach
∙ Attention to detail
∙ Maturity, autonomy and decision
∙ Organization
∙ Relational qualities
∙ Easy to write
How to become a Regulatory Affairs Specialist

Regulatory Affairs Specialist Salary

The salary of a young specialist in regulatory affairs is in the range of 50 to $ 70 000. Average earnings, regardless of the number of years of professional experience, is about $ 90 000.

Regulatory Affairs Specialist Professional development

The Regulatory Affairs Specialist will progress in stages. At the end of the first year, it will begin to master the subject. After three years of professional experience, the SAR will be autonomous and may submit only one bid. Between ten and fifteen years of practice in this position, it will be considered senior.
If the specialist regulatory affairs has excelled in obtaining approvals and has been able to develop communication skills, marketing and management, so many opportunities offered to them: development (Project Manager, Development Planning) external relations with the certification bodies, technological ...

Pharmacologist Salary

Pharmacologist Salary


Pharmacologist

Other Name: Pharmacology

Pharmacology covers all aspects of medicine, as well as their employment history and their consequences. Pharmacology includes pharmaceutical technology, that is to say regarding the drug from its conception to its administration, the pharmacodynamics: effects of drugs on living organisms, pharmacokinetics is to say the changes undergone by drugs in the body, from ingestion to elimination.

Pharmacologist Description

The pharmacologist is first and foremost a physician, pharmacist or a biologist of the drug. It conducts experiments and analysis to better understand the effects of pharmaceuticals and drugs on the human or animal. Its role is also to improve the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of physical illnesses and psychological.

The pharmacologist working in the laboratory for basic research in the pharmaceutical or biotechnology, in educational institutions or finally in hospitals.

Pharmacologist Main tasks

∙ Search the efficacy and safety of a drug
∙ Make tests to study the mutagenic (mutation), carcinogenic and teratogenic (malformation) of certain chemicals and drugs
∙ Set up the customary dose of the drug
∙ Partake in the research of new products (new drugs or new production techniques)
∙ Make available in a row on drugs
Pharmacologist Salary

Pharmacologist Degree

The pharmacologist has an initial training in pharmacy, molecular biology, medicine, biochemistry before specializing in pharmacology.
A pharmacologist who has a Master of Science works as a technician or research associate. With a PhD, it may be an independent researcher for a university or a company.

Pharmacologist Skills

∙ Have some knowledge of biology, biochemistry, physiology, pathology and biostatistics.
∙ Have skills in statistics and mathematics
∙ Demonstrate skills in information technology and computer science
∙ To show interest in developing new cures and treatments

Pharmacologist Skills

∙ Analytical and data processing
∙ Abilities to solve problems
∙ Creative and innovative approach
∙ Curiosity
∙ Precision
∙ Patience and tolerance

Pharmacologist Salary

Early in his career, a pharmacologist will receive compensation of between 38 and $ 46 000. After several years of experience, he can expect to earn $ 120 000 or more depending on degree it has acquired.

Pharmacologist Professional development

The pharmacologist can stay in their lanes and climb the ladder, becoming director and supervisor. It may also wish to move to other places such as sales, marketing or patents.

The evolution to a pharmacologist who works in an international company through jobs - career opportunities - abroad. It must therefore be prepared to be relocated.

Pharmacist research

Pharmacist research


The code of ethics of pharmacist's states that these last-must "help the development of the profession by sharing their knowledge and experience with other pharmacists and students, through participation in courses and training courses and the work and scientific research in the field of pharmacy. " They can then act as initiators and collaborators on research projects: basic, clinical, evaluative, epidemiological, qualitative, or pharmacon-economic development.

Pharmacist Description

The pharmacist researcher will mainly work on two areas of research: the contribution to drug development and evaluation of care and pharmacy services. It can invest in a pharmaceutical research company, but also within a university, hospital or Institute. He must be able to manage its research as a true mission, and thus ensure its financial, human (nursing assistant, statistician, a clinician) and hardware (computer, communication tools and medical equipment).

Pharmacist Main tasks
Pharmacist research

∙ Develop a research plan: identify the need or problem, define the objective and the target population, writing the research protocol
∙ Apply the research protocol to involve subject's consent, provide the pharmaceutical services, interpret data and analyze results
∙ Disseminating research results: how scientific papers, publish and implement the research results
∙ Write documentation of adverse events
Therapeutic monitoring

Pharmacist Degree

After earning a Bachelor of Pharmacy, the student must choose between:
∙ The Master of Pharmaceutical Sciences designed to train students in research
∙ The Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences whose purpose is to train independent researchers

Pharmacist Skills

Pharmacist-researcher who is involved in research

∙ Know and practice the ethical codes
∙ Be able to apply methods of scientific research

Pharmacist-researcher who initiates a search

In addition to the two skills mentioned above, it must:

∙ Know and implement the steps that lead to the development of the research plan
∙ Be able to present the results of rigorous research by the standards of publication required

Skills

∙ Acute attention to detail
∙ Good communication
∙ Excellent writing skills
∙ Ability to work independently
∙ Ability to manage a team

Pharmacist Salary

An assistant researcher in a pharmaceutical company, a biotechnology firm or a university department can start with a salary of $ 40 000. Director's salary in pharmaceutical research in large units may reach $ 150 000 excluding bonuses.

Pharmacist Professional development

A pharmacist researcher can be in his career work on research projects increasingly important and may need to lead teams. Every career requires a mastery of interpersonal skills and management, often requiring follow-up training in these areas.

Microbiologist job description

Microbiologist job description


Microbiology is a science which is divided into several areas: bacteriology, virology, parasitology and immunology. The objective of microbiology is to increase the specific knowledge to counter the spread of harmful microorganisms and to learn practical applications of research results (waste-water treatment, waste processing, fermentation, fertilization, drugs).

Microbiologist Description

Microbiologist studies the structure, metabolism, genetics and ecology of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or algae. He is interested in the relationship of these organisms among themselves and with their environment and observes the adverse and beneficial learned.

The microbiologist must look to biology (the constitution and functioning of living bodies) and enjoy working in a concrete way with precision instruments.

Microbiologist Main tasks

Studying bacteria (nature and characteristics)
∙ Classify, isolate the bacteria cultures and make
∙ To chemical analysis and biological analysis of the behavior
∙ Prepare reports
∙ Publish the results
∙ Possibly supervise the work of a team
∙ Participate in scientific meetings
Microbiologist job description

Microbiologist Degree

To access the job of microbiologist, it is recommended to have a bachelor's degree in microbiology.
Over 60% of students study in order to obtain a master's or doctoral degree.

Microbiologist Skills

Master the laboratory techniques
∙ Know the GLP (Good Laboratory Practice), GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) and HACP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points)
∙ Having concern for the safety and apply WHMIS (information system on hazardous materials at work)
∙ Have computer skills

Skills

∙ Analytical and synthetic
∙ Rigor and thoroughness
∙ Sense of initiative and autonomy
∙ Capacity for teamwork
∙ Multipurpose
∙ Good oral and written communication

Microbiologist Salary

The remuneration of a microbiologist depended on the industry in which it operates. It also depends on the level of study. A microbiologist with a bachelor's degree will have an average wage of $ 32 000, while a master's degree will earn about $ 45 000.

Microbiologist Professional development

Career development depends, again; the industry has chosen the microbiologist. After several years of experience, he can coach a team more or less. It also can switch from one industry to another. A microbiologist interested in academic careers, can do research, to become a teacher and publications.

How to be a Pharmacist

How to be a Pharmacist


Pharmacist

Pharmacist Description

Community pharmacists (neighborhood pharmacies, supermarkets) and hospital pharmacists perform the orders, provide information about drug use and keep a record of medication dispensed. Industrial pharmacists participate in turn in the research, development, testing and manufacturing of new drugs. They develop information materials concerning the uses and therapeutic effects of certain medications and evaluate the labeling and packaging, as well as advertising for medicines.

Pharmacist Main tasks

Community pharmacists and hospitals:

∙ Check prescriptions to ensure the correct dose
∙ Fill prescriptions, and to this end, calculate, measure and mix quantities of drugs and other substances necessary, and put the amount prescribed in appropriate containers
∙ Dispense prescribed pharmaceuticals to customers or other health care professionals and advise them on indications, against-indications, side effects, drug interactions and dosage
∙ Keep a record of drugs dispensed to customers as well as toxic substances and narcotic sold
∙ Ensure the packaging, preparation, storage of vaccines and distribution, serums, biologicals and pharmaceuticals and other drugs
∙ Order and maintain stock of pharmaceutical supplies
∙ Provide advice to clients on the selection and how to use prescription drugs

Industrial pharmacists

∙ Participate in research to develop new drugs
∙ Formulate new drug developed by medical researchers
∙ To test and verify the stability of new drugs and determine the absorption and elimination
∙ Coordinate clinical investigations of new drugs
∙ Control the quality of drug products during production to ensure compliance with standards of purity, uniformity, stability and security products
∙ Develop information materials concerning the uses, therapeutic effects and risks of certain drugs
∙ To evaluate the labeling and packaging of drugs as well as advertising of medicines
∙ To promote pharmaceutical products to health professionals

Pharmacist Degree

You usually have a bachelor's degree in pharmacy and an internship under the supervision of a pharmacist. To practice as a community pharmacist or hospital, you must have a license issued by provincial or territorial.
How to be a Pharmacist

Pharmacist Skills

∙ Strong basic science (chemistry, pharmacology, biochemistry, genetics, etc.). To control the dosage, propose a change in prescription or preparation, interpreting test results
∙ Good pedagogy to explain the dose
∙ Ability to manage supplies, inventory
∙ Control of inventory management software (software configuration, integration into supply chains with suppliers ...)
∙ Business skills and negotiation skills in relationships with wholesalers and manufacturers

Skills

∙ Discretion (medical confidentiality)
∙ Sense of touch
∙ Rigor
∙ Ability to work as a team
∙ Ability to adapt to changing technologies and materials

Pharmacist Salary

The average hourly wage for pharmacists ($ 44) is higher than the average for occupations in the health sector, and for all occupations combined ($ 21).

Pharmacist Professional development

Additional training in management and marketing of pharmaceuticals dispensed at the university are available to pharmacists. They also have access to many professional specialization.

How much do Pharmacy Technicians make

How much do Pharmacy Technicians make


Pharmacy Technician

The pharmacy technician can work in a pharmacy in the retail networks, independent pharmacies, clinics and hospitals, and related organizations such as pharmaceutical companies, insurance companies and health insurance life, sale of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical supplies.

Pharmacy Technicians Description

The pharmacy technician provides administrative support and technical assistance to pharmacists working in hospitals or retail pharmacies.

In most retail pharmacies, the technician is often interrupted by orders, phone calls, questions from staff and those of clients. Hours can be long and irregular, sometimes in difficult conditions. The work is challenging and requires precision, there is no room for error. The technician spends most of his day standing and must lift and move objects weighing up to ten kilograms.
How much do Pharmacy Technicians make

Pharmacy Technicians Main tasks

It measures, prepares, packages, labels and delivers drugs. He keeps lists of patient prescriptions computer and make sure you deliver the right drugs. It also handles home health products such as canes and hearing or vision.

Following his post, he can also handle supplier invoices, answering phones, directing customers to the items to the pharmacist for a consultation or pharmacy, obtain written prescriptions, sterilize bottles, clean and bottling instruments drug, answer questions on non-medicated and keep the cash register.

Pharmacy Technicians Degree

High school diploma with courses in biology or chemistry is recommended. Mainly hospitals require one year of study in pharmacy colleges.

Pharmacy Technicians Skills

∙ excellent knowledge of mathematics
∙ mastery of computer
∙ basic knowledge of chemistry or biology

Skills

∙ concentration and precision
∙ good memory, clarity, reliability
∙ manual dexterity
∙ excellent oral and written communication

Pharmacy Technicians Salary

The average annual salary amounts to 28,531 dollars, with an average low located 13,046 dollars, and an average high amounting to 36,981 dollars.

Pharmacy Technicians Professional development

One can, after some years of experience, progress to a supervisory position or to the pharmacist.

What is a chemist

What is a chemist


Chemist Description

Research and development in technical sales, through production and quality control, the term "chemist" cuts across various businesses. In the laboratory, the chemist is responsible for analyzing the properties of molecules and to invent new reactions. In a factory, he designed and optimized facilities for mass production, while ensuring environmental compliance and safety. It can also handle the marketing of chemicals. Whatever its function, it is not uncommon that manages a team of professional technicians.

Chemist Main tasks

• conduct economic feasibility studies and technical areas related to chemical industries, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, other processing industries, pulp and paper, food and cosmetics
• Perform research to develop or advance processes, and chemical reactions
• evaluate the materials and chemical process technology and determine production specifications
• design and testing facilities and equipment for chemical and related processes
• supervise the construction, modification, operation and maintenance of pilot
 plants, units or treatment facilities
• develop and conduct programs of quality control, operating procedures and control strategies to ensure consistency and compliance in respect to raw materials, products, waste or emissions
• Prepare contract documents and evaluate tenders for industrial construction
• Supervise technicians, technologists and other engineers
• perform administrative tasks including developing guidelines and requirements for handling hazardous chemicals, the environmental protection or standards on food, materials and consumer products

Chemist Degree

The BA in chemistry is a minimum, possibly with a specialty by field where you want to change. However, the vast majority of chemists have a Master's level at this time. You should also know that the profession is regulated as a chemist. To exercise this right, you must be a member of the Order of Chemists of your province.

Chemist Skills

• Knowing the "alphabet" of basic chemistry, the periodic table of elements
• Anticipate the interactions of different chemical molecules
• Control software and machines specific to chemistry
• Know popularizing complex issues with lay terms
• Being bilingual in written and oral
• Able to write clear and accurate reports

Skills
What is a chemist

• Observation capabilities
• Patience
• Rigor
• Adaptability
• Autonomy and organization
• Interpersonal skills

Chemist Salary

A chemist junior earns 22 000 and $ 24 000 annually. End of their career, it is possible to reach 80 000 to $ 100 000. Of course, everything depends on the functions performed, the level of graduation, the size of the company and the status of the employer (private or public).

Chemist Professional development

The classical evolution is to direct a laboratory or unit. Many chemists are also courses in administration in mid-career. Others prefer to act as experts for the court, for example in court cases.

Bioanalysts

Bioanalysts


The BioAnalyst, or bio informatics, is involved in fundamental and functional research to extend knowledge of living organisms, deal with natural resources and new products in the fields and develop new practices of the agriculture and medicine . He works in both laboratory and field for government agencies consulting environment, resource companies, and utilities, chemical companies, pharmaceutical and biotech as well as health facilities and of education.

Bioanalysts Description

Located between the world of computers and of biology, computer BioAnalyst applies to different fields of biology such as genomics.

Bioanalysts Main tasks

The BioAnalyst is a manager of database system's specific biological data. In collaboration with experts from medical, surgical and pharmaceutical companies, he developed specialized software and databases used to support diagnosis and treatment by computer or working on the development of telecommunications technology network for specific requirements (remote consultation between specialists, surgical hotline electronic transmission of video images, etc.).. Computer specialist, he also has training and experience to understand the medical information he needs to compile and computer processing, and the complex needs of medical community in telecommunications.
Bioanalysts

Bioanalysts Degree

A college degree in natural science with chemistry and biology, with a BAC of mathematics, computer science or biology, or a PhD MSc. Bio informatics is recommended to enter this profession.

Bioanalysts Skills

∙ mastery of the various analytical tools of biological data (analysis software, programming languages, modeling and database design)
∙ very good knowledge of biology (molecular genetics), statistics, probability
∙ control features of project management collection, supervision and recording of results
∙ excellent knowledge of English.

Skills

∙ analytical skills, abstraction and synthesis
∙ rigor and method
∙ adaptability to position themselves correctly in relation to a dual membership disciplinary
∙ listening skills and teamwork
∙ autonomy and critical thinking

What is Medical Laboratory Technician

What is Medical Laboratory Technician


The profession of laboratory technician, female 80%, has an unemployment rate (3%) lower than the national average (7%). The rate of employment growth is also expected to be above average, due to current trends: the growing and aging population leading to increased demand for health services, the emergence of new technologies for diagnosis and treatment, and increased government investment in health. However, the increased use of automated procedures for diagnosis and treatment will likely slow job creation. The highest concentrations of medical laboratory technicians are in Alberta and Quebec and lowest in Newfoundland and New Brunswick.

Medical Laboratory Technician Description

Medical laboratory technicians work in medical laboratories in hospitals, clinics, research institutes and universities and in government research laboratories.

Medical Laboratory Technician Main tasks

Collect samples of blood or other samples from patients;
Receive tissue samples from patients;
Note the patient samples and prepare them for testing;
Prepare the medical laboratory equipment;
Perform routine laboratory tests and analyze the samples;
Clean and maintain medical laboratory equipment.

Medical Laboratory Technician Degree

For medical laboratory technician, you must have a high school diploma and have received training in the workplace, or have completed a technician or assistant for a period of six to fourteen months. For medical laboratory technician and radiology, you need training combined laboratory technology and radiology.
Most new workers in the field have a college diploma, and almost 40% have an undergraduate degree.

Medical Laboratory Technician Skills and abilities

Learn teamwork
Have business skills
Have communication skills
Computer skills
What is Medical Laboratory Technician
Rigor

Medical Laboratory Technician Salary

The hourly wage of the laboratory technician ($ 23.00) is close to the national average ($ 21.00) and its growth rate is above average.

Medical Laboratory Technician Professional development

Clinical and private laboratories offer good job opportunities. Regularly refresh your knowledge of new medical technologies and improve your communication skills, this will allow you to distinguish you from other candidates.

How to Become a Medical Laboratory Technologist

Become a medical laboratory technologist in Canada

If you want to work in the province of Quebec, you must contact the Professional Order of Quebec medical technologists for requirements for certification.

In another provinces, there are three steps to become a medical laboratory technologist:

∙ Be declared eligible to take the national certification examination Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science. To qualify, you must:
* successfully complete an educational program, approved by the Canadian Medical Association or
* successfully complete the process of PLA Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science.

∙ Pass the national certification examination Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science
* You must apply for the exam and pay the appropriate fees.
* The exam is offered three times a year across Canada.
* It is not necessary that you live in Canada to pass the exam, but you must come to Canada to pass.
∙ If you want to work in a province where the profession is regulated after the exam, you should contact the regulatory body for the province in question to determine its requirements for membership.

Before you arrive in Canada
How to Become a Medical Laboratory Technologist

During your waiting period before your arrival in Canada, there are many important things you can do to improve your chances of success.

The Referral Office to foreign credentials is an organization of the Government of Canada that provides useful resources such as the guide you want to work in Canada and the Working in Canada Tool . Use these resources to find information important to develop and plan your job search.

You will demonstrate your knowledge of English or French or a test. You will find information at the following address: www.language.ca . If you need to improve your language skills, start before coming to Canada.

Start your Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) with the Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science. The PLA considers your academic learning from experience (practice), your professional and your work history to determine your equivalency compared to the national standard. You can finish your assessment before coming to Canada, but you have to come to Canada to pass the certification exam Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science.

Your education materials, labor, and official identification are important. It is much easier for you to collect and organize your documents while you are in your country. Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science recommends that your college / university send the documents in English or French, if possible.

Find a Job in Canada

You should take the time to research the requirements for employment and develop a plan to find work. You should seek help.

Many hospitals and health centers display a list of employment opportunities on their website. Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science has a bulletin board of job opportunities for its members.

Membership in professional associations is useful to learn about the profession in Canada.

Medical Laboratory Science

Medical Laboratory Science


Medical Laboratory Science in Canada

You can live and work anywhere in Canada. There is requiring for medical laboratory technologists in mutually huge cities than in minor communities. The majority medical laboratory technologist’s working in hospitals, but the works are available in private laboratories, clinics, community health, public health facilities, university research laboratories, biotechnology companies and laboratories. Branches are clinical chemistry, hematology, clinical microbiology, transfusion science, diagnostic cytology, clinical genetics, histotechnology electron microscopy, immunology, virology, flow cytometry and parasitology.
Medical Laboratory Science

Certification is time-honored Canadian Society for Medical Laboratory Science across Canada. Occupational health laboratory technologist is a health profession regulated by Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. In this provinces, you will need a license to work. Profession is not regulated in British Columbia in Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador and the territories. It is your responsibility to contact the appropriate regulatory authority to establish the conditions for granting the license.

Tremor

Tremoris mostly caused by the neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and injuries of the head, vitamins and mineral deficiency and also by heavy metal poisoning. Tremors are often characterized by involuntary but rhythmic muscular contraction and spontaneous relaxations that cause the involuntary body movements in head, throat, hands and legs, even in the eyeballs

Types and Causes

Some of the common types of tremors are Parkinsonian tremor that is caused by Parkinson’s disease; Essential tremor for which the exact cause is unknown; cerebellar tremor that is caused by genetic disorders, alcoholism, multiple sclerosis like degenerative disorders; rubral tremor that is caused by some forms of strokes; orthostatic tremors that are caused by neurological disorders and dystonic tremors as a result of aging and previous head injuries. Some of the tremors can be a result of mercurial poisoning, smoking, alcohol, tobacco, peripheral neuropathy and by venomous insect bites

Symptoms

The main symptoms are involuntary shaking of the eyes, hands, head, legs, slurry voice and inability to hold the utensil or even the pen. These symptoms are usually temporary and in some neurodegenerative problems, these conditions may be chronic and they are difficult to treat.

Diagnosis
• Neuro-diagnosis
• Clinical Examinations such as asymmetry, muscular coordination, sensory checks and reflex tests
• CT, MRI and Neuro-MRI
• Laboratory tests such as thyroid function tests, blood glucose levels and drug index levels

Treatment Options

The drugs used in the treatment of tremors are L-DOPA, diazepam, primidone, beta-blockers, anti-convulsants, anti-cholinergics and deep intra-muscular Botox injections. Refraining from caffeine, alcohol and tobacco is useful for the treatment procedure. In some cases, surgery treatment such as Thalatomy is prescribed with or without deep brain stimulation procedures. These medical and surgical procedures are useful in many cases; but in deep brain pathology cases, these treatments can treat the symptoms and recurrence of tremors is usual.

Prognosis

In some forms such as the vitamins and mineral deficiency–induced tremors, the prognosis is good with treatment; the prognosis in the poisoning forms may be sometimes permanent depending on the damage of the brain nerves and in the case of neurodegenerative disorders, the prognosis is usually poor in the advanced stages and the problem can be treatable in some cases but not curable.

Prevention

If the underlying cause is either by poisoning or by drugs or as a result of vitamin and nutritional deficiency, you can treat the symptom accordingly. You can avoid these forms of tremors, but for the tremors with degenerative and neurological disorder pathology, as of now, there are no preventive measures available and they should be treated only by medical intervention.

When to see a doctor

If you experience abnormal and involuntary body movements mainly in the head, legs, eye balls and hands or if you experience rhythmic or jerky movements in any part of the body, you need to consult a physician right away.

What causes stroke

What causes stroke is a partially solved medical puzzle and needs to finish a way long journey. Stroke, also called as cerebrovascular accident, is a medical condition that can be a result of interrupted blood circulation to the brain. Due to the absence of blood supply and oxygen, the functions of the brain are impaired and the brain will eventually die off depending on the time of the circulation failure. Stroke is a leading killer disease in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Stroke is mainly classified into two types based on the pathology of the disease. They are: ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The ischemic stroke is a condition in which the blood supply is decreased or ceased by the presence of blood clots and cholesterol/fat plaques in the blood vessels. These blood clots can block the supply of the blood and oxygen to the brain. The hemorrhagic stroke is caused by the leakage or burst of the blood vessels supplying blood. The incidence of stroke is preventable by medical, nutritional and lifestyle factors.
Causes 

Some of the main causes of stroke are blocks in the carotid artery, heart disease, aneurysm, aging, familial history of stroke or heart disease with or without diabetes, uncontrolled blood pressure, smoking, male gender, vitamin K deficiency, clotting disorders caused by autoimmune diseases, alcohol, sedentary lifestyles, consumption of high fat/cholesterol diets with saturated fats and some of the untreated deep head injuries. Other causes of stroke are some forms of coagulopathies by autoimmune disorder, anemia such as sickle cell anemia, atrial fibrillation, venous thrombosis, all types of endocarditis, some drugs such as amphetamine and cocaine.

Symptoms

• Headache
• Profuse sweating
• Numbness in face, arms and hands
• Delirium
• Dizziness
• Vertigo-like symptoms
• Difficulty in breathing
• Urinary and/or fecal incontinence
• Lack of coordination
• Slurring speech
• Lack of taste, heat and cold sensations

Diagnosis

• Laboratory test such as complete blood count
• Bleeding time, clotting time, absolute platelet count, prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time
• Lipid profile and blood glucose level estimations
• ECG, angiogram, Echocardiogram, CT and/or MRI of brain, carotid duplex to estimate the rate of blood flow in the blood vessels, etc.

Treatment Options

The main treatment option for stroke is the clot busters that can breakdown the clots in the blood vessels and hence the incidence of stroke or the further brain damage can be prevented. Some of the clot busters such as Streptokinase, Streptodornase, urokinase, heparin, and coumarin with aspirin can be given. Some of the patients may need surgical treatment for the removal of the ruptured blood vessel. The post-stroke treatment may include occupational therapy and speech therapy (if there is an extensive brain damage) and stroke rehabilitation may also be required.

Prognosis

The prognosis of the stroke pathology depends on the underlying medical condition and the age. Mostly, stroke attacks are drug-responsive and unless there is a remission, the survival rate can be increased. In some post-stroke patients, the degree of nerve damage is more and they need other supporting therapies such as speech and occupational therapy. After these treatments, they can lead the life independently like the others.

When to see a doctor

Stroke is a medical emergency and it needs immediate medical attention. If you experience abnormal headache with dizziness, difficult to breath, pain in the chest, sweating, vision changes, loss of coordination, numbness or weakness in the left hand, face or back or if you experience any abnormality symptoms even after you took medicines or if you feel the home care is not useful to treat your symptoms, you need to see a medical doctor immediately.

Dyssomnia aka sleep disorder

An individual with dyssomnia aka sleep disorders often experiences alterations in sleep patterns such as difficulty to sleep or lack of sleep, abnormal behaviors in sleep, very long duration of sleep and alterations in sleep rhythms/timings. Most of the causes for the sleep disorders are treatable and the common causes of sleep disorders are stress, food habits, bruxism, sleep walking, nightmares, and life style.
Types 

Some of the main types of sleep disorders are dyssomnia—a term used to denote either lack of sleep (insomnia) or excess sleep (hypersomnia)—circardian rhythm sleep disorders, restless leg syndrome, sleep walking, parasomnia, nightmares, sleep apnea and snoring-like airway problems, sleeping sickness caused by microbial infection, psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, nocturnal enuresis, tooth-grinding disorders, depression with anxiety-induced sleep disorders and rapid eye movement sleep behaviors. Most of these symptoms of sleep disorders are treatable and some of the problems need no medical attention.
Symptoms

The symptoms of sleep disorders are lack of sleep or excess sleep, sleep walking behavior and other abnormal psychiatric symptoms. But most of the sleep disorder symptoms may vary from one person to another.

Diagnosis

Polysomnography with Rapid Eye Movement (REM) studies and Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) studies
• Psychological counseling can be helpful to diagnose the anxiety- or depression-related sleep disorders 

Treatment Options

The treatment is based on combined therapy of psychological, psychiatric, neurological and rehabilitary medicines. The physician often opts for regularization of the sleep patterns with sedatives or tranquilizers with or without anxiolytics or anti-depressants and psychological counseling to avoid substance abuse, alcohol and smoking as well as lifestyle modifications without coffee and tea and restoring the sleep hygiene. In bed wetting–related sleep disorders, Amphetamine and other similar drugs are to be prescribed. In tooth-grinding disorders, a sleep dentist is to be consulted to correct the symptom. Most of the other symptoms may vary from one person to another and also the medication and the treatment procedures may vary.

Prognosis

Most of the patients with are treatable, while some of the problems will resolve without any medical interventions. Hence the prognosis of sleep disorders with or without medical treatment is good. Changes in the lifestyle, food habits, sedentary lifestyle and avoiding narcotics and alcohol can improve the symptoms drastically without treatment. In case of sleep disorders with psychological reasons, meditation and yoga-like self-healing techniques will be useful than pharmacological treatments.

Prevention

As the sleep disorders are multi-factorial, as of now, there are no effective prevention strategies recorded for sleep disorders.

When to see a doctor

If you experience lack of sleep or if you feel you are lying asleep for prolonged time than normal or if you fall asleep only in the day time but not at night or if you experience symptoms of sleep disorders even after you took the prescribed medicines, you need to consult a Sleep Physiologist or a Physician to get proper treatment.

Sciatica

Sciatica is a symptom of pain and neurological dysfunction that can be a result of compression and/or irritation in the sciatic nerve, which is one of the five spinal nerves that control the lower extremities. In Sciatica, the nerve pain originates in the lower back and then it can spread to the other lower body parts such as the thigh and even the legs and foot. Sometimes, cold weather conditions can worsen the situation. Sciatica is not a disease, but it is a symptom of a disease. Hence, it is required to treat the origin of the disease rather than the symptom.
Causes

The exact cause of Sciatica is the compression of the Sciatic nerve or the compression of the lumbar or the sacral spine bones that are located above the Sciatic nerve in the pelvic cavity. The pain associated with Sciatica is caused by the pain response elicited by nerves as a result of compression or irritation. Some of the other causes of Sciatica are spinal stenosis, tumors that can compress the disc or the Sciatic nerve itself, traumatic injury and/or fracture of the spinal bone that results in compression of the sciatic nerve, spinal disc herniation or accidentally slipped discs, degenerative changes in the discs, and muscular problem such as Piriformis syndrome.

Symptoms

The degree of the pain of Sciatica may vary from time to time and sometimes it may be moderate and in some instance it may be severe. Some of the common symptoms are:

• Pain in one side of the leg
• Gradual onset of pain often starts slowly that may radiate to the other parts
• Difficulty in walking, standing, sitting, running, bending and even laughing may worsen the symptoms
• Episodic attacks are common in the nights.

Diagnosis

• Clinical examination such as Reflex tests
• X-ray of the Lumbar spine
• Electromyogram (EMG), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Neurography (MRN)

Treatment Options

In Sciatica, if the underlying medical condition is disc prolapse, rarely it may require surgical intervention and many of the cases are cured without medical intervention by physical therapy and rest and hence the Sciatica will subside by its own. Surgery may be needed, if there are any tumors that cause Sciatica. However, the medical treatment is mostly the pain management with conventional analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and diclofenac.

Prognosis

The prognosis of Sciatica is usually good after a proper medical treatment. But the relapse of Sciatica is more common, which needs the continuation of the treatment. Many cases reported that the Sciatica subsides by its own without any medical treatment.

When to see a doctor

If you experience abnormal pain upon movement or if there is pain even after you took medicines or if you feel the home care is not useful for pain management, you need to see the medical doctor immediately.

Restless leg syndrome

The restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a symptom of neurological disorder in which the patient experiences an abnormal urge or sensation to shake the leg in response to pain, itching, discomfort or numbness. When returned to the resting stage, the restless leg syndrome patient can feel the pain and again they want to shake the leg to alleviate the pain. Mostly, the restless leg syndrome patients experience this problem in the late evening or in the night. There are two types of restless leg syndrome; they are: Primary restless leg syndrome, a problem that arises in the middle age and there will be a periodical attack and relapse, and secondary restless leg syndrome that occurs in the middle age of 40 years and there will be a constant pain sensation, which may be due to external factors such as drugs and environmental factors.
Causes 

The restless leg syndrome can be caused by a number of factors such as iron deficiency or anemia, obesity, renal problems, heavy metal toxicity and its associated neurotoxicity, smoking, alcohol, varicose vein, and excess caffeine intake and rarely hormone dysfunctions such as diabetes can also cause restless leg syndrome. Other factors such as the medicines prescribed to cure another disease can also cause restless leg syndrome. Some of the drugs such as anti-depressants, ranitidine and cimetidine can cause this disorder. Some of the reports claim that some neuro-psychiatric disorders and genetic/familial inheritance can also cause restless leg syndrome.

Symptoms

• Constant and intense leg pain
• Tingling
• Sprains and burning- or itching-like sensation due to neuritis
• Alterations in the sleep patterns due to episodic attacks of restless leg syndrome, mostly in the nights.

Diagnosis

There are no laboratory or radiological examinations available for the diagnosis of this disorder. But clinical examination and correlation of the clinical symptoms can be useful to diagnose restless leg syndrome and to rule out the other possible medical conditions. Some of the symptoms that need to be examined by the clinician are:

• A strong urge to move the leg frequently
• Relief of pain after shaking the leg
• Events of attacks in the evening or night
• Some of the physicians use color doppler study to examine the blood flow rate in the legs
• There will be a pathological increase in the blood flow rate and evidence of venous reflux in the legs.

Treatment Options

The medical management of restless leg syndrome starts with the drug therapy of dopamine antagonist and Gabapentin. The opioids, benzodiazepenes and anti-convulsant drugs are useful for the management of restless leg syndrome. The other options include the non-pharmacological therapies such as hot-water bath and application of hot packs in the legs, and mind-relaxing yogas are also reported to be useful but they lack scientific evidence.

Prognosis

The prognosis of restless leg syndrome depends on the age and the associated medical problems of the patient. In the advanced ages, the symptoms of this disorder may get worse. But the patient in the early and middle ages can get relief and the remission of restless leg syndrome and its episodic attacks can be decreased by medical management.

Prevention Strategies

No prevention methods are reported for restless leg syndrome

When to see a doctor

When you experience abnormal pain, burning or itching sensation that needs leg shaking movements to relieve the pain, leg cramps or sprains in the night time or if your symptoms worsen even after you took the medicines, you need to consult the medical doctor immediately.

Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy, also called as peripheral neuritis, is a medical condition in which a single or a group of peripheral nerve(s) are damaged. There are four main types of peripheral neuropathy and it is classified according to the degree of damage of the peripheral nervous system. They are: mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, autonomic neuropathy and mononeuritis multiplex. The patient with peripheral neuropathy often experiences pain, numbness, and burning sensation in the affected parts of the body, mostly in the palmar regions of the hands and legs.
Causes 

Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by a number of conditions such as diabetes, hormonal causes such as thyroid dysfunctions, vitamin deficiency, autoimmune diseases, drug toxicity, circulatory problems, compression on the peripheral nerve, genetic causes and accidental trauma, or by infections such as HIV, and shingles. Some of the reports suggest that electric shocks and inflammatory diseases such as leprosy and chronic renal failures can cause peripheral neuropathy.

Symptoms

• Numbness or pain/burning sensation in the palms of the hands and legs
• Muscular pain and cramps
• Tremors
• Gait anomalies
• Increased skin sensitivity
• Tiredness and muscular fatigue
• Muscular sprains and twitching
• Abnormal sexual dysfunction
• Inability to wear shoe, socks, gloves and, in some patients, even inability to use the bed sheets.

Diagnosis

The conventional diagnosis is by neurological examination of the patient. The physician can diagnose loss of sensory or motor function in the patient. The peripheral neuropathy patient always complains burning, numbness, tingling and pain sensations in the hands and legs, and the symptoms are clinically correlated with the existing medical problems.

Treatment Options

The medical treatment is mainly targeted on the central nervous system. Some of the drugs commonly prescribed for peripheral neuropathy are Pregabalin, Duloxetin, Amitriptyline, Gabapentin, Valproate, etc. Also, opiates can relieve the neural pain, and medical marijuana and cannabis can be helpful in some types of peripheral neuropathy. Vitamins and nutritional supplements are prescribed, if the peripheral neuropathy is caused by vitamin deficiency, and synthetic thyroid hormones can be useful in the thyroid dysfunction-related peripheral neuropathy, etc. However, most of the treatments for the peripheral neuropathy patients are tailor-made and it depends on the underlying cause peripheral neuropathy.

Prognosis

The disease prognosis usually depends on the degree of the nerve damage and its type and causes. Some of the incidences of peripheral neuropathy with genetic causes are difficult to treat and the prognosis is usually poor, if left untreated. In some neuropathies, there will be permanent damage to the peripheral nervous system and there will be no use by medical treatment and the complications will remain for the lifetime of the peripheral neuropathy patient.

Prevention

To prevent the incidence or recurrence of peripheral neuropathy, you must control diabetes mellitus and high sugar levels. If the underlying condition of your peripheral neuropathy is treatable such as that caused by vitamin deficiency, try to take medicines regularly. Avoid smoking habits and alcohol habits, which may worsen the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Regular physical exercise may improve the prognosis and decrease the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. If you're diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy, try to avoid handling electrical components and hot or too cold particles; wearing protective covering to your hands and feet can be useful.

When to see a doctor

If you have uncontrolled diabetes with pain, numbness or burning sensation in the legs and hands, gaits, cramp-like events or if you experience these symptoms even after you took the medicines, you should consult your physician right away.

Parkinson's disease

The Parkinson’s disease is a geriatric medical problem that can result in neurological degeneration in the higher centre, the brain. Parkinson’s disease is classified as a motor system disorder. The Parkinson’s disease can cause loss of motor nerve coordination, tremors and movement disorders. Some of the epidemiological data suggest that about 8–18 people per 100,000 persons are affected in a year in the developed countries. There is no permanent cure for Parkinson’s disease, and the available medication can treat the symptoms for a particular period of time. Some of the research reports found that natural supplements and antioxidants can delay the progression of Parkinson's disease.
Causes

The probable reason for Parkinson’s disease is the degenerative damage of the dopamine-synthesizing cells in the brain. Dopamine is the key neurochemical that transmits the synaptic transmission between the nerve cells. The impaired nerve synaptic transmission can result in impaired neuro-muscular functions, tremors and loss of muscle coordination. The exact cause of the selective damage of dopamine secretory cells is unknown and it is termed as idiopathic. Also some of the other causes of Parkinson's disease are as mutation in the brain protein–synthesizing gene, neuropsychiatric theories, hereditary reasons and ethnicity are reported in the scientific research studies

Symptoms

• Involuntary and non-coordinated movements of the head and hands
• Movement problems
• Slurred or slow speech
• Impaired walking with muscular fatigue and pains
• Difficulty in eating and swallowing
• Psychological problems such as progressive memory loss and dementia
• Heart beat variations
• Jerky movements and unsteady posture during rest and movement
• Depression and/or hallucination–like psychotic reactions and abnormal psychological behaviors.

Diagnosis

Some of the clinical and reflex examinations can be useful to diagnose the Parkinson’s disease. No laboratory biomarkers are available to predict/diagnose the Parkinson’s disease. Some of the commonly employed radio-diagnostic tests are:

• Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to rule out hydrocephalus and tumors and to confirm Parkinson's disease.

Treatment Options

The pharmacological agents that may be useful to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are anticholinergic drugs; cholinesterase inhibitors; amantadine; Mono Amine Oxidase – B inhibitors such as rasagline, Levodopa (L-Dopa), and dopamine agonist drugs such as apomorphine and bromocriptine. When the drugs are not useful for the management of Parkinson’s disease, the physician may opt for surgical procedures to treat the lesions and for deep brain stimulation. All of these procedures are symptomatic treatment and these will not cure the Parkinson’s disease.

Prognosis

The prognosis of the Parkinson’s disease is usually poor and develops over time. Some of the symptoms vary from one person to another; most of the patients experience abnormal tremors and disability to do their daily activities, which can cause extreme psychological disturbance. The available medications neither cure the disease nor delay the progression of the disease. In the advanced stages of Parkinson's disease, assistance from a caregiver, preferably a family member, is required for the Parkinson’s disease patient.

Future Therapies and Research Trends

As of now, there are no medicines and permanent cure for Parkinson’s disease. Some of the recent research findings suggest that stem cell therapy, gene therapy and some surgical procedures are useful. It is better to participate in the clinical trials as a volunteer for the Parkinson’s disease. There are some chances for better treatment or even cure; but there is no guarantee, as they are experimental drugs.

When to see a doctor

If you experience abnormal shaking of hands or any parts of the extremities and head, inability to walk some distance by your own and/or if you need someone’s assistance to perform your daily activities even after you took the medicines, you need to see a medical doctor immediately to rule out or confirm the existence of Parkinson’s disease.