Pain Chest Wall

Pain Chest Wall

What is the source of the complaint?

Chest wall with muscle
We do not have full insight into the cause of these problems, but it is understood that the following explanation is likely: The condition usually caused by muscle tension and breathing failure. Infants breathe with the stomach, i.e. the diaphragm moves up and down so that the stomach bulges out during the inhalation and exhalation of return. By this technique, which is the proper breathing technique, keep your chest completely still when we breathe.
Pain Chest Wall

Many older people can no longer breathe in this way, and raise your chest and shoulders when breathing should be included. This strain, we are not truly designed to withstand, and many people also get pain in the muscles that lift the chest. This is exacerbated if you are tense and tight muscles more than necessary when they really should rest if damage or fall, and after operations in the chest seen such tensions often.

Most people who experience such pain, think fast on your mind, which often leads to increased muscle tension and increasing pain. The pain is thought to come from irritation of the muscles and tendon membranes because of the overload.

Health benefits of Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are considered to be essential fatty acids for human health. The health benefits of Omega-3 fatty acids are well-documented and it is essential to prevent many degenerative disorders, and life-style oriented disease including joint pain, epilepsy, prostrate cancer, breathing disorders such as asthma and COPD, heart diseases including myocardial ischemia and infarction, stroke, psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and bipolar disorders1. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids also help to protect against cancer, notably of the breast and improves weight/muscle mass in wasting diseases2. Omega-3 fatty acids are also essential for normal growth and physiological process and also play a crucial role in helping brain development and functions.

Omega-3 fatty acids from microalgae – A beneficial source and substitute for fish oil

If you are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, your body may start showing certain symptoms which may include fatigue, poor memory, depression, dry skin problems3and importantly some heart problems. Therefore proper supplementation of these essential fatty acids is necessary. The most important forms of omega-3 fatty acids are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and α - linolenicacids (ALA).

Nutritional supplements with α - linolenic acids helps in preventing and treating many diseases and disorders like epilepsy, coronary heart disorders, depression and stress. According to researchers, vegetarian source of EPA and DHA is an appropriate choice and such supplements can offer preventive as well as therapeutic benefits. EPA, ALA and DHA extracted from microalgae are the vegetarian sources of omega 3 fatty acids and these are nutritionally and therapeutically equivalent to the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish sources such as cod liver oil. Microalgae are microscopic algae found in fresh water and marine systems. Certain microalgae produce high levels of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and/or DHA) from where oil can be extracted organically. While fish oil is known for its high omega-3 fatty acid content, fish actually don’t produce these bioactive substances in their body. Instead, fish feeds that on microalgae gets its reserve of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore dietary supplements of DHA and EPA can be obtained directly from microalgae. 

Several studies have shown that extracts of microalgae consumed for as less as 2 weeks have enhanced the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in the blood and thus helped in maintaining proper body functions.4 Hence microalgae is a best source of omega-3 fatty acid from and it is suitable for vegans and also for non-vegans. 

Nutritional Omega-3 fatty acid supplements from microalgal sources are available from many commercial vendors. You can buy it from here: 

1.   Mischoulon D et al (2009). A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate (Omega-3 fatty acids) for major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry

2.   Ryan AM et al (2009). Enteral nutrition enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (omega-3 fatty acids) preserves lean body mass following esophageal cancer surgery: results of a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Ann. Surg.249(3): 355–63.
3.  Sukenik A et al (1994). Dietary lipids from marine unicellular algae enhance the amount of liver and blood omega-3 fatty acids in rats. Ann Nutr Metabol. 38:pp. 85-96.

4.  Geppert J et al (2005). Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in vegetarians effectively increases omega-3 index: a randomized trial. Lipids. 40: pp. 807-14.

What is the prognosis

What is the prognosis

What is the prognosis?
The first episode of rheumatic fever may last for weeks to months. Joint disorder is almost always over. Heart inflammation can cause permanent flap failure. The disease is associated with increased mortality both in the acute phase (myocarditis) and after (valve failure).
What is the prognosis

The immediate mortality rate is 1-2%. Patients who receive damages of palpitation has also increased the risk for serious complications from the heart later.

Treatment and diagnosis rheumatic fever

Treatment and diagnosis rheumatic fever

How is the diagnosis?
The diagnosis is based on the occurrence of several of the above symptoms or signs (Jones criteria), elevated blood sedimentation rate (ESR) and CRP , and laboratory detection of ongoing or recent infection with group A streptococci. ECG may show typical changes.

What is the treatment?
It is common to treat anyone with a penicillin cure for the eradication of streptococci from the throat.

The patient should keep quiet until the fever, and SR goes back and resting heart rate drops below 100.

There is no unanimous agreement among experts on the treatment beyond this. Anti-inflammatory medications are often used ( NSAIDs) , if necessary cortisone. However, this treatment is controversial, and there is no evidence that such treatment reduces the risk of heart disease.
Treatment and diagnosis rheumatic fever

If you have had rheumatic fever once, the risk is greatly increased for the new streptococcal infections can lead to a resurgence of rheumatic fever. With repeated episodes of rheumatic fever also increases the risk of serious heart disease. Therefore, it is common for children with rheumatic fever, and all who have had rheumatic fever with evidence of disease of the heart, recommended preventive treatment with penicillin for up to five years after initial rheumatic fever episode.

What causes Rheumatic Fever

What causes Rheumatic Fever?

Rheumatic fever occurs after a preceding sore throat. Signs of rheumatic fever usually occur 2-3 weeks after strep throat infection, but symptoms can come as early as one week and as late as after five weeks. The prevailing hypothesis is that rheumatic fever caused by an autoimmune process triggered by a throat infection with group A streptococci.

Inflammation of the heart is the most serious effect of the disease. Mitral valve (the valve between the left atrium and ventricle) is attacked in 75-80% of cases, aortic valve in 30%.
What causes Rheumatic Fever

Rheumatic fever signs and symptoms

Inflammation of the heart it is present in 80-90% it can appear as chest pain, heart rhythm disturbances and heart failure.

Joint Inflammation it appears on 2/3 of patients and is 2-4 weeks after streptococcal infection lasting 1-5 weeks and usually heal completely. Common inflammation often moving from joint to joint, sometimes lasts inflammation in some joints only a few days and then spread to the next paragraph.
Rheumatic fever signs and symptoms

Rash (erythema marginatum) itchy rash with sharp demarcation towards the periphery and more diffuse boundary to the center. The rash may come and go.

Nodule under the skin is a relatively uncommon consequence of rheumatic fever in adults, but is more common in children persists for days and weeks and can come back?

Sydenham's Korean (St. Veit Dance) can sometimes be the only manifestation of rheumatic fever this affects 10-40%. Sydenham's Koreans are more frequent in girls and are seen rarely in adults. There is abrupt, purposeless, and involuntary movements and muscle weakness. Often accompanied by emotional disturbances. The condition is alarming, but is almost always by themselves.

Incidence of rheumatic fever

Incidence of rheumatic fever

What is the incidence of rheumatic fever?

As living standards have improved, acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease have become rare diseases in developed countries . Treatment with antibiotics has also helped to limit the scope of diseases, but less important than the prosperity increase.

Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease occur today mainly in developing countries. According to WHO there are at least 15.6 million people have rheumatic heart disease. The incidence is highest in African countries south of Sahara, on the Pacific Islands and the primitive tribes of Australia and New Zealand. Incidence of rheumatoid heart disease increases with age and reaches its highest level in the age group 25-34 years. 233,000 deaths per annum attributed to acute rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease.
Incidence of rheumatic fever

Acute rheumatic fever is a rare condition among the youngest children, only 5% of cases occur among children under five years, and the condition is almost unknown inchildren under two years. The first episodes of rheumatic fever are most common just before puberty, decreases in late adolescence and is rare among adults older than 35 years. Recurrent episodes are especially frequent among teens and early adulthood.

What is Rheumatic Fever Caused By

What is Rheumatic Fever Caused By

Rheumatic fever

What is rheumatic fever?

Rheumatic fever or rheumatic fever (febris rheumatica) is an immunological reaction in the body that comes in the wake of a throat infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. The disease involves a diffuse inflammatory disease of the joints, heart, blood vessels, central nervous system and skin. The predominant symptoms are arthritis, heart inflammation, nodules under the skin, rashes and Sydenham's Koreas.
What is Rheumatic Fever Caused By

Although the acute illness can cause significant morbidity and even death, it's long-term damage to heart valves that make up the great burden - rheumatic heart disease with damaged heart valves. This condition is due to the amount of damage from repeated episodes of acute rheumatic fever, although initial infection can sometimes lead directly to the rheumatic disease. In younger patients, mitral klaffs vikt the dominant cardiac damage, whereas mitral stenosis is increasingly the common condition with increasing age.

Pain In The Chest Wall

Pain In The Chest Wall

Pain in the chest wall
Over half of that seeking medical attention for chest pain, ends up with a diagnosis of chest wall pain. It is a harmless condition caused by tightness in the muscles of the chest wall.

What is chest wall pain?
Chest wall pain or interkostal myalg denotes a state of pain from the muscles (myalgia), which is located between the ribs (intercostal). The pain can be daunting because the patient may fear that the pain stems from the heart or lungs. Complaints often lead to consultations in general practice. The condition is harmless, but it may be useful to study to disprove the suspicion of other diseases.
Pain In The Chest Wall

It is a very common condition. In a German / Austrian study found that the average age of those with this diagnosis was 59 years and 56% were women. Half of those who sought medical attention for chest pain, was diagnosed after careful studying chest wall pain.

Herpes Ulcers

Herpes Ulcers

Herpes, or herpes simplex is a viral infection that causes sores often to appear on the face or genitals.

There are two specific types of herpes infections.

Infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is usually associated with cold sores on the lips, mouth or face. These lesions appear as small blister that eventually the crust is covered. The infection is usually transmitted during childhood and saliva.

Infection with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) on the genitals and is sexually transmitted disease. It shows, as well as pain in the penis, scrotum, labia, vagina, on the upper thighs, buttocks or anus in the region.Symptoms of both types of herpes can vary from mild to intense. Really, is some people have symptoms so small that it dawns on them, they have herpes.
Herpes Ulcers

A human being with herpes does not experience symptoms outside of the virus, the body with virus. The virus be capable of be activated by illness or stress, and it can extend throughout skin to skin. Transmission is possible even when there are no visible signs of this disease. Herpes can be passed to a child during birth if the child comes into direct contact of the virus. There is no cure, but medications can reduce symptoms of an outbreak.

Benefits of weight loss exercises

Benefits of weight loss exercises – Doing wonders

Weight loss is not all that easy and if you try to lose weight in a short time by going on a crash diet can prove to be dangerous to you. The benefits of weight loss exercises may vary, depending on the lifestyle changes and diet. While many people fast for losing weight, some of them pop in some diet pills, all these things actually cannot make you lose weight, rather there are ill effects of these.  Because of these methods of trying to losing weight, some of you may be prone to development of gallstones while some others may lose hair or may even injure vital organs of the body. There is one school of thought that dieting does not make one lose weight, rather it will make a person lose muscle mass and expose him to mood changes because of which there will be a change in his personality.

The benefits of weight loss exercise can be achieved by weight loss, and the best way of lose weight is either by decreasing calorie content or burning out more calories by exercise. Weight loss exercise is a very essential component of one’s weight loss program. Though some individuals eat appropriate amounts of calories, they are still overweight. This is probably due to lack of physical activity.

There are plenty of weight loss exercises that could easily allow people to lose weight without harming the body and even keeping the calorie intake same.

When one thinks of weight loss exercises, you may just start with a walk at a slow pace. If done daily for an hour, it can do wonders. You may start this way. Gradually you may like to increase the frequency of exercising and the type of weight loss exercise. Before taking up a particular weight loss exercise you must know how much do you weigh now and how many calories you needs to shed. Also you need to be clear on what kind of weight loss exercise to perform and for how long.

Even simple things like deep breathing can help someone lose weight and increase the lung capacity and help purify blood. It helps burn more calories, speed up metabolism, and help burn body fat. This is a pretty simple and easier weight loss exercise. 

Other simple weight loss exercises like crunches can do wonders in flattening the bulging tummy. Even running up and down the stairs help one to sweat out and tone up the legs. It increases the blood circulation and makes one fit and active. It is not necessary that to carry out exercises you join a health club. There are a number of weight loss exercises that you can do indoors. You can just run a video CD on aerobic exercises or also called as cardiovascular exercises and work around the living room. There are also fitness products available such as skipping ropes.

No matter how much time you are spending in gym and the type of weight loss exercise you are doing. Planned weight loss exercises, doing household work, gardening, or house-hold day-to-day tasks are useful in losing weight and to maintain good shape and health.

Finally, keep on moving and perform physical activities to keep yourself healthy and avoid sedentary lifestyle to become free from degenerative disorders and lifestyle-oriented diseases. These weight loss exercises actually help you in reducing the fat which ultimately leads to loss in weight and give you a slimmer and healthier look.

Then why are waiting for? Start with a simple weight loss exercise and be fit.

Health benefits of Cocoa

Cocoa is the unprocessed cocoa bean obtained from the plant Theobroma cacao and originated deep in the equatorial rain forests of the Americas. Before the Spanish conquest, cocoa is the currency used for the trading purpose. Cocoa is often used as cocoa powder, cocoa butter and cocoa solids. Annually, 3000000 tons of cocoa are produced worldwide. Now Cocoa is used worldwide as a beverage and an ingredient in chocolates. In the world, Cote d’lvoire is the leading producer and exporter of cocoa. Cocoa and its health benefits are well documented in a number of research studies.
 Sources and extraction methods for cocoa
The sourcing of the cocoa is from the cocoa plantation estates and the process harvesting consists of plucking the ripe pods, opening the pods, extracting the seeds, allowing them to ferment, and setting them out to dry - preferably in the open air and in sunshine. During processing, the dried seeds are inspected and thoroughly cleaned with blow air and then with water. After cleaning, the seeds are roasted before the shell is removed, or of removing the shell before roasting. The inside of the cocoa bean is called the nib. The cocoa processors involve the nib-roasting process. The seed roasting allows the variety of roasting which facilitates the flavor formation and it requires the cocoa seeds with uniform size. But the nib roasting is more even when compared to the former and it does not need equal bean size. To prevent the migration of cocoa butter, it is better to remove the shell prior to the roasting process. Once the beans have been shelled and roasted, the nib is ground into a paste. The cocoa butter in the nib begins to melt due to the increase in temperature. This is the general extraction process and in accordance with the requirement some process are optimized and adjusted as per their requirement.
Its traditional health uses and sources
The Cocoa is used as a traditional medicine in the Latin America to treat many diseases/disorders. Some of them are, to weight in thin patients and as a stimulant in the patients with dull mental condition and also to improve digestion and bowel function, excretory systems including kidney and better assimilation of food. [1]
1. Teresa L. Dillinger, Patricia Barriga, Sylvia Escarcega, Martha Jimenez, Diana Salazar Lowe and Louis E.Grivetti (2000). Foods of the Gods: Cure for the humanity? A cultural history of the medicinal and ritual use of chocolate. J Nutrition 130: 20575 – 20725.

Active and healthy ingredients of cocoa 
The main active “healthy” ingredients of cocoa are Polyphenols (Catechins and Epigallocatechin), flavanols, stearic acid, oleic acid, cetyl acetate, traces of tocopherol, Theobromine and traces of saturated fats.
Health benefits of cocoa
A.  The consumption of cocoa with out the addition of milk, markedly increase the total plasma antioxidant levels. This is due to the presence of Epicatechin, a dietary flavanoid. [1] Hence the occurrence of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) mediated degenerative diseases like cancer, diabetes, rapid aging process can be prevented and/or reduced.
B.  The consumption of Cocoa is helpful to prevent myocardial and ischemic diseases. The anti-thrombotic activity of Cocoa prevents the occurrence of myocardial infarction and formation of thrombosis. [2, 3, 4]
C.  Also Cocoa decreases the blood pressure, increases the High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL), decreases the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)and hence decrease the incidence of cardiovascular mortality [5]
D.   Consumption of cocoa can improve the cognitive performance and cocoa is a potent mood lifter. [6] Hence it can be a natural, nutritional supporter in the mood related disorders.
1. Mauro Serafini, Rossana Bugianesi, Guiseppe Maiani, Silvia Valtuena, Simone De Santis, Alan Crozier (2003). Nature424: 1013.
2. Rein D, Lotito S, Holt RR, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Fraga CG.  Epicatechin in human plasma: in vivo determination and effect of chocolate consumption on plasma oxidation status (2000).  J Nutr130:2109S-2114S.
3. Holt, R. R., Schramm, D. D., Keen, C. L., Lazarus, S. A. & Schmitz, H. H (2002). J. Am.Med. Assoc. 287: 2212–2213.
4. Steinberg, F. M., Bearden, M. N. & Keen, C. L (2003). Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 103: 215–223.
5. Eric L Ding, Susan M Hutfless, Xin Ding and Saket Girotra (2006). Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review. Nutrition and Metabolism 3: 2.
6. Scholey AB, French SJ, Morris PJ, Kennedy DO, Milne AL, Haskell CF (2010). Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in acute improvements in mood and cognitive performance during sustained mental effort. J Psychopharmacology 24(10):1504-14.
Active ingredients and its biological mechanisms:

A. PolyPhenolic Flavanoids:
       a. Epicatechin:
 The Polyphenols (specifically the Epicatechin) present in the cocoa reduce the platelet aggregation by inhibiting the key mediators of the biological process like prostacyclins and some prostaglandin variants. [1] The incidence of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease and death by cardiac problems can be avoided by the consumption of cocoa products. [2]
     b. Flavanols:
The Flavonols, a subclass of flavanoids present in the cocoa possess potent anti-inflammatory property that prevents the pain mechanisms related to immunological injury (Rheumatoid Arthritis) by suppressing the chemokines, a key mediator of the pain mechanism.[3]This property can also be useful in the prevention of inflammatory process of atherosclerosis and its immune-mediated cell response.
     c. Theobromine:
The theobromine present in the cocoa possesses therapeutic effects on hypertension, angina, edema and other circulatory problems. [4] This is due to non-competitive and selective inhibition of the phosphor-di-esterase enzyme which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases including allergy [5]. Theobromine is useful in the treatment of asthma and its associated problems like persistent cough. [6]
1. Rein D et al (2000). Cocoa inhibits platelet activation and function. Am J Clin Nutr. 72:30-5
2. Gerald Rimbach et al (2009).   Polyphenols from Cocoa and vascular health. Int J Mol Sci 10(10): 4290-4309. 
3. Selmi C, Mao TK, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Eric Gershwin M (2006). The Anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 47(2): S163-71.
4. Kelly, Caleb J (2005). Effects of theobromine should be considered in future studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (2): 486–8
5. Essayan DM. (2001). "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases." J Allergy Clin Immunol. 108 (5): 671–80
6. Irwin J. Polk (1997). All about Asthma: Stop Suffering and Start Living. New York: Insight Books. p. 100 
Research trends in cocoa health benefits  
 - According to a recent research study, the consumption of cocoa products increases the blood flow to the brain and thereby it prevents the events of stroke and also the development/progression of dementia and other age related cognitive disorders. [1]
 - Some pre-clinical research reports that the moderate consumption of cocoa and related products can prevent the generalized DNA damage, pathological apoptosis and in particular it can effectively inhibit the duodenal cancer. [2]
1. Sorond FA, Lipsitz LA, Hollenberg NK, Fisher NDL (2008). Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 4:433-440.
2. David L. Katz, Kim Doughty and Ather Ali. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. -Not available-, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/ars.2010.3697.
(a) For high blood pressure: 46-105 gms/day of dark or milk chocolate, providing 213-500 mg of the active ingredients, cocoa Polyphenols. [1]
(b) For hypercholesterolemia and lipid disorders: 22gms/day. [2]
Cocoa as an antioxidant: 
The polyphenols are tend to increase the antioxidant capacity of plasma, with one study reporting that ingestion of 80 g of procyanidin-rich cocoa powder increased plasma Epicatechin concentrations 12-fold, significantly increased plasma total antioxidant capacity by 31% [3]
2. Karen A Cooper, Jennifer L Donovan, Andrew L Waterhouse and Gary Williamson (2008). Cocoa and health: a decade of research. Bri J Nutrition 99: 1-11.
3. MJ Abbe Maleyki and A Ismail (2010). Antioxidant properties of cocoa powder. J Food Biochem 34(1): 111-125
Negative elements or contra indications, side effects:

The theobromine present in the cocoa can cause some side effects like by a decrease in the blood, sleeplessness, nausea, vomiting and psychological and behavioural problems like tremors and restlessness. [1] In some elderly people with smoking habits, theobromine can induce the risk of prostate cancer. [2] It is better to avoid cocoa and cocoa products in pregnancy.
1.  Howell, L.L., Coffin, V.L., Spealman, R.D. Behavioural and physiological effects of xanthines in nonhuman primates (1997). Psychopharmacology, 129 (1): 1-14
2.  Slattery, Martha L.; West, Dee W (1993). "Smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine: risk of prostate cancer in Utah (United States)". Cancer Causes Control 4(6): 559–63
Some important and interesting facts about cocoa  
-     Cocoa powder is a richest source of minerals including magnesium and iron.
 -    Research studies concluded that cocoa does not cause acne - or make it worse.
 -   The other polyphenols that are present in the cocoa like phenyethylene and anandamide possess anti-depressant properties.
Recent research findings about cocoa 

     a. Reduction of Insulin Resistance:
 The consumption of the cocoa dramatically decreases the insulin resistance in Essential Hypertension (EH) patients. The levels of the insulin-resistance biomarkers like homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated from OGTT values are within the normal range. [1]Hence the Cocoa can be included in the diet for the insulin-resistant diabetes patients as well as the Essential hypertension patients with Insulin-resistance
    b. Anti-Inflammatory Property of Cocoa:
The immunological and inflammatory triggers and key underlying mechanisms leading to the process of inflammation may vary between clinical conditions but they share many common mediators, including specific patterns of eicosanoids, prostaglandins and cytokine production. The flavanols present in the cocoa is found to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity relevant to cardiovascular health in pre-clinical studies. The experimental evidence demonstrates that some cocoa-derived flavanols can reduce the production and effect of pro-inflammatory mediators either directly or by acting on signalling pathways. [2] In accordance with the results available from the literatures, the flavanol-rich cocoa could be a potential candidate for the treatment, or possibly prevention, of the broad array of chronic diseases that are linked to dysfunctional inflammatory responses.
1. Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri C (2005). Cocoa Reduces Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance and Improves Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation in Hypertensives. Hypertension 46(2): 398-405.
2. Selmi C, Mao TK, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Eric Gershwin M (2006). The Anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 47(2): S163-71
c. Anti-hypertensive Property of Cocoa:
 In a comparative clinical study between the beneficial properties of Cocoa and Green tea and black tea flavanoids, the researchers concluded that the consumption of foods rich in cocoa may reduce blood pressure, while the tea intake appears to have no beneficial or therapeutic effect. [1]
1. Taubert D, Roesen R, Schömig E (April 2007). "Effect of cocoa and tea intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis". Arch. Intern. Med. 167 (7): 626–34

Personalized Cancer Treatment

Personalized Cancer Treatment


Thanks to technical advances, it is now possible to study the entire genome of a tumor to select the most appropriate treatment in the management of the patient.

The research contributes to the development of a growing number of antitumor drugs particularly promising targeted therapies. These treatments are highly effective in their specificity of action: they act, in effect, on cells that have precise molecular characteristics associated with their malignant nature. Therefore, these new drugs are only effective in patients whose tumor carries specific abnormalities. Their administration thus requires genetic characterization of tumor cells to destroy.

A strategy to obtain maximum information on tumors is genomic sequencing. This strategy is to decipher the entire genetic makeup of tumor cells in order to catalog all the flaws that entail. By comparing the resulting catalog to the arsenal of available targeted therapies, doctors can more easily choose the most appropriate treatment in the management of patients.
Personalized Cancer Treatment

This approach has remained utopian sequence an entire genome was indeed a work far too long and as well costly for it to be done in order to choose an anti-tumor therapy. However, today the situation is different: an American team has indeed demonstrated that it is possible to analyze the genetic makeup of a tumor in three to four weeks, for approximately $ 3,809. This period is consistent with the initiation of treatment, and the cost is not significantly higher than other methods currently used to characterize tumors.

It remains a problem to solve: in their pilot study of four patients, U.S. researchers have identified genetic defects that can be targeted by drugs currently being evaluated. However, patients have benefited from these treatments: testing clinics being focused on the use of these drugs in cancers other than those they developed.

Thus, the use of sequencing to facilitate personalized treatment can be considered without a change in the implementation of clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of new targeted therapies.

Ultrasound Guided

Ultrasound Guided

Ultrasound guided dry needling of chronic tendinopathy

A number of different methods of treating chronic tendinopathy has recently been presented. One of the methods that are increasingly experiencing greater interest is the "dry needling" of the chronic problems. (In some literature called Ultrasound Guided Percutaneous pines Tenotomi)

In working manual therapist and acupuncture. For many years used dry needling as a method to treat chronic tendon pathology, and has followed closely the research that has been presented on the site in recent years.Muscle & Skeleton that examined the use of ultrasound diagnosis in a manual therapist practice. In this article, commented the need for ultrasound as a guide to perform a dry needling accurately and efficiently. Some researchers also call this method for a percutaneous needle Tenotomi.

Recently used ultrasound (U.S.) to guide the needle into the actual tendon injury. The use of ultrasound has several obvious advantages. The clinical diagnosis can be ensured by UL. This avoids incorrect processing structure. At the same time ensures that the needles hit the U.S. jurisdiction in the tendon. Clinical trials are not good for determining where in the tendon injury is. Palpation is not a safe diagnostic tool in this respect. Using UL is the investigator exactly the scene.

Chinese medicine and acupuncture, and western education in physical therapy, orthopedic medicine (OMI) and manual therapy. In Chinese medicine have been published many articles in which "pepring" of the scene is used as acupuncture. It is not known in most communities, when people first and foremost envisions acupuncture as a method in which one uses a more global approach with pins.

By combining this method with the U.S. so we can go in and find where the tendon injury is and treat accurately. By uses both classical acupuncture needles and thin injection needles in this treatment. The advantage of using an injection needle is that it is stiffer and can easily be inserted via eg the thick layer of skin over the plantar fascia. An acupuncture needle tends to bend. In addition, an injection needle a more potent "cutting effect" that creates a somewhat larger "trauma" and thus a larger internal bleeding in the tendon. The advantage of an acupuncture needle is that the treatment is less painful. However, as mentioned earlier in this section as acupuncture needle creates a minor injury and one must often deal with more frequently to achieve the desired effect.

It perform 2-6 treatments with 1-2 week intervals in the treatment of chronic tendinopathy. During treatment with injection needle he often waits two weeks between treatments, whereas with acupuncture needles then you can / should deal with weekly. Often, only a few treatments may be enough to achieve the desired stimulation of the body to begin regeneration of tendon injury.

As a manual therapist had to treat patients without local anesthetic. The local anesthetic gives the therapist the ability to process longer so that you get stimulated whole tendon injury on a treatment. Without anesthesia, the patient will often not hold the entire treatment, so this must be carried out in several stages. One way which aids this problem if you do not have access to physician collaboration that local anesthetic is to ask the patient to take oral analgesics before treatment. This will possibly make the patient more susceptible to treatment. But he adds that all in all patients tolerated the treatment well without oral or local analgesia.

Having used tenotomi / dry needling as a method for many years before he began using U.S. guidance, able to compare the effects before and after UL - guidance. UL gives me the opportunity to make precise the treatment, he said. It is not just "touch and feel" as it is able to before. Used the U.S. as a diagnostic and counseling tool in the clinic for over 3 years.

Ultrasound diagnostics in combination with acupuncture is an effective treatment for tendon pathology and bursitis. Typical treatment areas is lateral epicondylitis, supraspinatus tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis. But the method can be used on all tendinopathy and bursitis where the medical history, clinical tests and the U.S. together give you an answer about the structure that should be addressed. It emphasize that the U.S. alone is not an adequate tool to perform diagnostics. But with physiotherapy knowledge of testing, the group has everything it takes to be good at this method. Internationally, it was the often radiology, pediatric, radiographers and sonographer who used ultrasound abdomen and barren, but now holds it to be more focus on skeletal muscle. Especially rheumatology use ultrasound frequently to assess the extent and localization of inflammation. There is now an increasing number of physiotherapists, manual therapists, clinical orthopedic physical therapists and chiropractors who use ultrasound practice. And the group is growing. Encourage everyone with an interest in skeletal muscle injuries to use ultrasound guided Percutaneous pines Tenotomi / dry needling as a treatment option for bursitis and tendinopathy.

Association for Clinical Orthopedic Medicine organizes an annual anatomy, dissection and injection rate for physical therapists and doctors at the preparations. This is an excellent way to familiarize themselves with the technique and anatomy is required to use tenotomi as an effective management tool.

Ultrasound with how had tested the treatment of 14 different tendon pathology with ultrasound guided percutaneous needle tenotomi. Their hypothesis was that treatment was equally effective even if you do not inject cortisone for tenotomien. They got good results in his study, but since the study lacked blinding, large enough numbers and a control group, so the results should be tested in a larger study. The method was used to treat lateral epicondylitis. This study was of higher quality, but the method they used was tenotomi followed by injection of cortisone to control inflammation in the aftermath. The authors in this study even discussed the possibility of carrying out treatment without cortisone, and presented a hypothesis that it was mainly the needle damaging effect that initiated regeneration, and that cortisone had no active role. But you used when cortisone to control inflammation after treatment.

In light of recent studies on the effect of Association for Clinical Orthopedic Medicine and cortisone their possible negative effects on healing after injury, is unsure of the need for cortisone. If the method of tenotomi is designed to create a new acute inflammation so that repair processes locally in the tissue is at it again, why would you then to inhibit this effect by injecting cortisone? Some have argued that cortisone softens scar tissue, but remains more research.

Good Medical Schools

Good Medical Schools

Main Courses on Medical School is due to medicine (anatomy, physiology and pathology) with 30 points, off basic medical training and nutrition therapy. In addition, school study in diet and nutrition (diet supervisor), preliminary course in anatomy and physiology, and start-up and operation for therapists ..

Teaching Methods
The school studies carried out either through online training, classroom sessions, or a combination thereof. Since the start of the school has been great emphasis on teaching through the Internet. There are many reasons, including that one can study when and where you want, you do not have expenses for travel and accommodation, you can study at their own pace, and last but not least, online teaching is environmentally friendly.

Some subjects, however, works best with a teacher present. Therefore, there will often voluntary or mandatory meetings in addition to teaching online. Many students also work together around the syllabus and assignments.

Online Teaching
In your school going learning and communication with teachers via the Internet. You can access your own password-protected online school, which will act as your "classroom" throughout the study period. There you will have access to articles, tutorials, lecture notes, assignments, discussions, repetitions, internet resources, video and so on.

As your student does one decide for yourself how and when to study and work so it is best for oneself. For that you should be able to get through the curriculum during the study period, follow a set progression, with regular mandatory submission tasks. This schedule is intended as a guide.
Good Medical Schools
If it should become necessary, have the opportunity to take time each topic, and may also extend the period of study (for a fee of 800, - for each semester). There may be restrictions in relation to the extension of studies where there is compulsory collection and / or studies that give credits.

All courses and programs are divided into different numbers of subjects (between 5 and 10). It is usually a written task (directed by the supervisor) and a quiz (corrected automatically) to each topic.

Medical School employs highly qualified tutors to their studies, such as doctors, nurses and other professionals. Teachers with different professional backgrounds contributes to different views on a topic, and is also useful and positive for a creative academic environment.

In studies that provide credit, there are prerequisites (general admission requirements or qualifications).

Cheat Pain

Cheat Pain

What is heartburn disease?

Chest fire caused by the stomach acid (hydrochloric acid) from the stomach (gastro) comes into the gullet (esophagus), that is, the acid moves opposite "direction of motion." The fact that gastric acid in this way flows "backwards" in the digestive tract, described in technical terms as reflux.

There are many names for this condition. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (Gors) is the medical term for this disorder. Some just call it reflux disease. To make the condition easier to recognize, we have chosen to call it heartburn disease.

As mentioned, the condition causes heartburn (some say heartburn) and / or burning pain in upper abdomen or lower chest. Almost everyone has experienced heartburn, what's it take to call it a disease? Yes, the term disease means that reflux symptoms are so bothersome that they provide reduced quality of life and need for treatment.
Cheat Pain
In reflux disease there may be inflammatory changes in the lining of the lower esophagus (esophagitis), but the lining can also be completely normal on examination.

Fire Chest Disease occurs in 5-10% of the population. Mostly, of this is not visible inflammation of the esophagus.

Argan Oil Uses

Argan Oil Uses

Latin name: Argania spinosa.

Common names:
Argan argan oil , gold berbere.

Moisturizing, antioxidant, anti acne (acne traces), anti psoriasis, anti redness, anti aging, muscle relaxant, stabilizes cholesterol.

Suitable for:
Sunburn, skin irritations, psoriasis, dry skin, massage, premature skin aging, skin moisturizing, hair and nails brittle cholesterol.

The argan is one of the herbs and medicines and cosmetics are still little known. Only the almonds in fruits of the tree are used for making oil. The argan tree is a native of Morocco and has been used for centuries by women in the kitchen as Berbers (kernels are roasted before pressing) in cosmetics (amandon cold pressed without roasting).

Argan oil is rich in vitamins and unsaponifiables.

Cosmetics: Oil cosmetic, non-roasted almonds.

It is also rich in essential fatty acid's omega-6; it is very useful thanks to its anti-oxidants to fight against dry skin, slows skin aging, and improves hydration. It is used in massage, for the problems of dry hair and fragile to brittle nails or split.
Argan Oil Uses
Kitchen: Edible oil, roasted almonds.

Its high oleic acid content makes this oil, particularly interesting in the regulation of blood cholesterol. Some studies are underway, and it appears that two tablespoons a day of argan oil food for a month could significantly reduce cholesterol levels.

The negative point about argan oil is that the plant does not contain alpha-linolenic acid. This EGM is as important as others and should be part of the diet. Argan oil cannot be the only oil in your kitchen. It is important to rely on rapeseed oil and / or soybean oil for this acid.

Health hazards of cell phone radiation

Strength of radio frequency signal: A better marker of mobile phone radiation
The dynamic use of mobile phone worldwide brought into a growing concern about the health hazards of cellphone radiation and long-term exposure to radiofrequency (RF) field around the phone and its implication with possible adverse health effects,  particularly brain and other intracranial tumors [8, 5, 7]. Electromagnetic field produced by the antenna of mobile phone has several components. Only one of these actually propagates through space as radiofrequency signal while the other components remain near the antenna. The strength of the RF signal decreases rapidly with distance, however the entire field strength near the antenna can be relatively high and pose a hazard to the human head [6].

When the exposed head is near the antenna, the electromagnetic field is distributed due to the electric properties of the tissue. Some of the energy in the electromagnetic waves emitted by phone is absorbed by the head, mostly in superficial tissue and is quantified by the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) [Watts/kg]. Scientific data indicate that, during exposure to radiation from a mobile phone, variety of biological effects occur at energy levels that may or may not cause local increase in temperature. Differences between experimental electroencephalography EEG, with and without the use of cell phone, have been observed  [1]. The distribution of the absorbed energy in the head varies with the design of the phone and to which side of the head it is held [9]. The radiofrequency range normally used in mobile phone is 0.9 – 1.8 GHz while the maximum power that is permitted to transmit is 2W for 0.9 GHz and 1W for 1.8 GHz. These powers are reduced by the help of adaptive power control (APC) and discontinuous transmissions. The APC continually adjust the power from phone, such that the transmitted power for clear signal is a minimum [6, 10]. APC employed by the second-generation GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) networks have the ability to reduce the  output power of mobile phone handsets by 2 fold on average [9].

For a phone to pass FCC certification and be sold in the United States, its maximum SAR level must be less than 1.6 Watts/kg. In Europe, the level is capped at 2 Watts/kg, while Canada allows a maximum of 1.6 Watts/kg. The SAR level varies between different transmission bands (the same phone can use multiple bands during a call), and between different models of handset that’s offered by multiple carriers. The exposure to RF signal depends on the output power of the phone, which is directly related to the exposure level (call duration) and absorbed dose, and may vary by a factor of 1000 during a call [3].

The base station will regulate the output power of the mobile phone depending on the received signal strength. Factors that may influence the APC are the distance between hand set and base station, attenuation of the signal, length of the call (the phone transmit maximum allowed signal at the onset of each call), and change of connecting base station, ‘‘handover’’ (the phone will temporarily increase output power when connecting to a new base station). Some researchers advise against using phone in areas with poor coverage since phones emit more radiation when searching for a signal. Thus, calls made in locations with larger distance to base stations such as rural areas, and while in a moving vehicle may achieve substantially higher output power [9, 4].

When the RF signal strength is weak, the emitted radiation can be 1000 fold higher as in the case of  distant places from base station, moving vehicles and heavy traffic in base station. The variation of emitted radiation can best be monitored by strength of RF signal, which varies by a factor of 1000 than SAR of the specific cell phone, which differs by a maximum of 20 fold. Though the signal level does not tell the exact amount of radiation, it indicates that the radiation is higher when the signal is weak. A high or good signal level improves the safety of user from radiation related hazard. In order to ensure user safety from mobile phone radiation, a simple application is constructed that alerts the user about the lower signal level, when initiating a call. This application will prompt the user to postpone the call or switch to hands free equipment, when the signal is below the threshold. Several simple measures can be practiced to avoid cell phone radiation associated hazards, despite purchasing a handset with a low SAR. Text message instead of placing a voice call, use a wired headset or speakerphone whenever possible, and hold the phone at least one inch away from your body. Use of hands free equipment may reduce the amount of absorbed energy in the head considerably (more than a 90% reduction) [2]. Children, who have smaller and thinner skulls, should limit cell phone use, and all users, should not sleep with an active phone next to their bedside or under their pillow.
Many SAR protection software and chips are commercially available all over the world. You can buy it here:

[1] Bardasano J.L., Álvarez-ude J., Gutiérrez I., Goya R. New Device Against Non-Thermal Effects from Mobile Telephones. The environmentalist, December 2005, Volume 25, pages 257- 263, ISSN 0251-1088
[2] Bit-Babik G., Chou C.K., Faraone A., Gessner A., Kanda M., and Balzano Q. Estimation of the SAR in the head and body due to radiofrequency radiation exposure from handheld mobile phones with hands-free accessories. Radiat Res 2003: 159: 550–557.
[3] ETSI. Digital cellular telecommunications system  (Phase 2+); Radio transmission and reception (3GPP).2007; ETSI TS 145 005 V7.11.0 (R7).
[4] Hillert L, Ahlbom A, Neasham D, et al. Callrelated factors influencing output power from mobile phones. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2006;16:507–14.
[5] Klaeboe L, Blaasaas KG, Tynes T. Use of mobile phones in Norway and risk of intracranial tumours. Eur J Cancer Prev 2007;16:158–64.
[6] Morega M, Machedon A Specific Conditions for EMF Modeling in Human Exposure from mobile Phone Technology, Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering ATEE 2002, Bucharest, Romania, Nov.  2002, 7 pg., Proc. CD-ROM
[7] Sadetzki S, Chetrit A, Jarus-Hakak A, et al. Cellular phone use and risk of benign and malignant parotid gland tumors—a nationwide case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:457–67.
[8] Takebayashi T, Akiba S, Kikuchi Y, et al. Mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma risk in Japan. Occup Environ Med 2006;63:802–7.
[9] M Vrijheid, S Mann, P Vecchia, et al. Determinants of mobile phone output power in a multinational study: implications for exposure assessment Occup Environ Med 2009;66:664–671. doi:10.1136/oem.2008.043380
[10] Wiart J, Dale C, Bosisio AD, et al. Analysis of the influence of the power control and discontinuation transmission on RF exposure with GSM mobile phones. IEEE Transactions on Electomagnetic compatibility 2000;42:376–85.