Anti-cancer drug isolated from fungi

In a desperate attempt to reduce side effects of synthetic, anti-cancer drugs, a team of US scientists researched and isolated a potential anti-cancer drug from naturally-occurring fungus. The bioactive compounds present in the fungus can combat cancer, and the efficacy of the fungus-derived drug is at-par to conventional anti-cancer drug.
Similar research studies conducted by Dr. Mohammed Movassaghi from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and he was the first to isolate an anti-cancer compound from fungal sources. The compound was called dideoxyverticillin which was reported to be highly effective against cancer.

The initiative by Dr. Mohammed can help the development of new drugs against the dreadful and debilitating disease.

Nearly 60 different bioactive compounds were derived from the fungus, and the team analyzed the anti-cancer efficacy of the compounds in cancer cell line cultures.

Several compounds were found to be effective in killing the cancer cells in the study which was exiting, said Dr. Movassaghi.

The study was assisted by a student graduate from MIT and a chemistry professor from the Institute.

The results were published in the journal Chemical Science Reports.

Omega-3 fatty acid in fish oil can prevent skin cancer

Scientists from University of Manchester conducted a clinical trial on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in skin immunity. The researchers now confirmed that regular intake of omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil can prevent skin cancer by increasing skin immunity against harmful rays in sunlight. The study has been funded by the Association for International Cancer Research.
The study results have been published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
According to Prof. Lesley Rhodes, Department of Experimental Dermatology, Photobiology Unit Dermatology Centre, University's School of Medicine and Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, sunlight plays a vital role in suppressing the immune system (immunosuppression) that results in skin cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids can prevent the immunosuppression by modulating the immune function. This is the first human clinical trial to study the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in immunosuppression, Dr. Lesley said.
Nearly 79 healthy volunteers were included in the trial study, and they received 4g, regular doses of omega-3 fatty acids. The dose is approximately equivalent to consumption of 2 oily fishes every day. Then the participants were exposed to direct, midday sunlight of 8, 15 or 30 minutes. 80 participants were included in the study, and they received a placebo before sunlight exposure.
When compared to the placebo group, decreased levels (50%) of immunosuppression were observed in omega-3 fatty acid received group who was exposed to 8 and 15 minutes. However, no significant protection was observed on 30 minutes exposed people, and in participants who did not receive omega-3 fatty acids.

The study results can be helpful to combat skin cancer, and the researchers warned that omega-3 fatty are not a substitute for sunscreen lotions.

Omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial against heart diseases, aging relating eye disorders and several cancers including prostate cancer.

In 2010, nearly 1, 00,000 UKpeople were diagnosed with skin cancer and it emerges as a global healthcare problem. 

Carnosine can prevent cancer and Alzheimer’s disease

A team of UK scientists discovered that the anti-aging dietary supplement, Carnosine can prevent cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. According to the scientists, Carnosine can prevent incidences of a variety ageing-related disorders and diseases including neuropsychiatric disorders and diabetes mellitus.
The scientists reported the study results in the Chemistry Central Journal. The report can boost the morale of millions of elderly people who are being suffered from aging-related, debilitating medical problems.

Carnosine is derived from a naturally-occurring bioactive compound, and it is relatively cheaper than other similar supplements.

Carnosine, a potent antioxidant pill, is being consumed by millions of people to prevent aging related health problems. Several anti-aging drugs and supplementary formulations contain Carnosine which scavenges toxic body chemicals such as reactive oxygen species and other free radicals. Free radicals are the predominant causative for development of degenerative diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes.

Athletes and sports personnel use Carnosine to delay exercise or sports-related fatigue.

The same study reported that the supplement can even prevent incidences of Parkinson’s disease, and also from type 2 diabetes complications such as neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy etc.

If the Carnosine is researched further, other potential, long term benefits can be unearthed, said study lead, Prof. Roslyn Bill, Aston University, UK.

Vitamin D and calcium supplements are not useful against fracture risks

Contrary to the popular belief, Vitamin D and calcium supplements are not useful against fracture risks in postmenopausal women. The health advisory regulatory committee of the United States Food and Drug Administration has earlier warned the consumers against taking calcium and Vitamin D supplements. Now, the USFDA’s federal panel for consumer health monitoring, backed the recommendations of health regulators. A report, stating the lack of beneficial evidences of Vitamin D has been documented by US Preventive Services Task Force.     
The report has been published in an esteemed medical journal, Annals of Internal Medicine.

The document tested and validated all recommended doses up to 1 gm of calcium supplements and 400 IU of Vitamin D3 in a large group of postmenopausal women.

The report clearly suggested that there are no substantial clinical evidences to advocate the benefits of Vitamin D and calcium supplements against incidences of fractures in post-menopausal women.

The role of calcium and Vitamin D in bone health and homeostasis are well known, said Dr. Virginia Moyer, one of the special task force members. Several research studies were conducted to unearth the links between the two factors. However, very few conclusive evidences exist but not validated in a large number of participants.

Based on the meta-analyses of the previous studies, the task force concluded the existing evidences are inconclusive and against the use of high doses of Vitamin D and calcium supplements. The report clearly stated that no evidences exist about the fracture preventive effects of Vitamin D and calcium supplements in postmenopausal women, she added.

Fasting can reduce fever symptoms

A team of researchers from Edinburgh University found fasting can reduce fever symptoms, and empty stomach can hasten the recovery. The team believe the food actually helps the microbes to spread all over the body that result in systemic infections

To confirm the observation, the researchers compared the infectious ability of well-fed water fleas with poorly fed organisms. They found the former were more contagious than the latter.

The researchers reported that the life span of well-fed fleas were increased, and also the replication. The team advocated the observations, and they strongly believe nutrition is a vital factor in the spread of disease and infections. They suggested that the findings can be helpful to monitor the infections in a large group of populations.

According to study lead, Dr. Pedro Vale, Eminent at Edinburgh’s School of Biology, the knowledge about the mode of infectious diseases transmission can be helpful to fend the spread of the disease. The contact between infected and normal people is an important mode of infection spread, he said.

The present study suggested a new way of disease transmission. However, the study should be validated with a large group of humans and the potential role of nutrition in the spread of infections should be explored, he added.

The study results were published in the reputed academic journal, Biology Letters.

Resveratrol can prevent declining cognition and hearing loss

Researchers from Detroit-based Henry Ford Hospital reported the resveratrol can prevent declining cognition and hearing loss. Red grapes and red wine are rich sources of resveratrol and 150 ml of red wine contains 0.3 to 1 mg of resveratrol. The research study results were published in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.                                                                                                                                                             

The anti-ageing properties of resveratrol were well documented, and resveratrol is a powerful anti-inflammatory chemical that prevents hearing loss, cognitive decline and aging processes. 

Hearing loss is common, global healthcare problem, and approximately 20% of US people are suffering from hearing loss problems with varied causes including aging, workplace-related, noise-induced and traumatic.
Researchers led by Dr. Micheal Seidman, Director, Division of Otologic/Neurotologic Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery from Henry Ford Hospital studied the long-term effects of noise and its effects on hearing loss in experimental animals. Animals without any treatment suffered progressive hearing loss upon exposure to loud noise. However, no such effects were observed in resveratrol pre-treated animals.
The recent studies are being focussed on anti-bioinflammatory properties of the compound, and the body’s response against hearing loss, Alzheimer’s disease and malignancies, Dr. Micheal said.
The aim of Dr. Micheal’s study is to unearth the protective effect of the grape-vine compound against loud noise. The study assessed the inflammatory biomolecules such as reactive oxygen species, cyclooxygenase-2 and other pro-inflammatory signalling proteins. The team found increased synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2 after prolonged exposure and in continuous exposures. These inflammatory molecules are also associated with cognitive decline, which is common, in elderly people.
The study reported resveratrol significantly reduced biosynthesis of inflammatory molecules including cyclooxygenase-2. When compared to other group, reduced hearing loss was observed resveratrol-treated animals. Reduced or no evidence of cognitive decline in resveratrol-treated animals.
The study clearly evidenced the protective role of grape-vine compound against cognitive decline and hearing loss, said Dr. Micheal said.

Resveratrol is present in other sources such as peanuts, blueberries, white wine and white grapes. However, white grapes and white wines contain lesser levels of resveratrol than red grapes and red wines.

Causes, treatment and prevention of hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids is the common and top-trending, painful problem, and of us are being affected in some point, in our life. Plenty of medical information are available over internet about the causes, treatment and prevention of hemorrhoids. The United Food and Drug Administration pointed out hemorrhoids as one of the predominant health problem in the US in 2012. 


 What are hemorrhoids?

A painful medical condition that causes due to increased pressure and swollen (inflamed) veins (blood vessels) in the anus or rectum. Hemorrhoids are common in adults aged between 45 to 65 years, pregnant and post-partum women. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle can increase the incidence. Hemorrhoids and its symptoms are easily treatable with medications and food style modifications. Hemorrhoids are two types, internal and external that form inside the rectum and near the anal opening, respectively. Strained defecationand constipation can worsen the symptoms with the occurrence of bleeding. 

Symptoms of hemorrhoids

·         Persistent or occasional itching in the anus that increases while sitting
·         Painful, hard lumps near the anal opening
·         Visible, bright red blood in poops or tissue paper
·         Intense anal pain while passing the stools


·         Laser or infra-red therapy to shrink hemorrhoids
·         Ligating the blood supplying blood vessels to shrink hemorrhoids
·         Injection or application of medicines under anesthesia
·         Surgical removal of untreatable, large hemorrhoids
·         Over-the-counter creams and pain medicines to alleviate the symptoms
·         Sitting in a warm water tub daily for 15 minutes 


·         Consumption of fiber-rich diet such as whole grains, leafy vegetables and fruits
·         Adding bulk such as Isabgol to avoid constipation
·         Drinking plenty of fluids as juices and water
·         Avoid sedentary lifestyle and sitting too long at-a-time
·         Regular exercise
·         Taking fecal softening fiber supplements and approved medicines.

One-in-thirty cancer deaths are alcohol-related

Most of the people prefer alcohol over smoking just because they believe alcohol do not cause cancer. Shockingly, a recent research reported one-in-thirty cancer deaths are alcohol-related. 

A new study conducted by U.S National Cancer Institute found a concrete evidence and association between alcohol and cancer. According to report, the alcohol-related cancer deaths are in the United States. The link is more prominent with incidence of breast cancer and 15% of breast cancer related deaths are associated with alcohol consumption, he report suggested. 

The study suggested, even moderate consumption of alcohol are hazardous to health. Nearly, 30% of alcohol-related deaths are associated with less than 2 drinks, a day, the report found. 

Similar to other compounds, alcohol can cause cancer, said Dr. David Nelson at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. Despite its effect, alcohol has been overlooked by the people over years. Higher alcohol consumption is a significant risk factor of cancer, and no safe levels of alcohol consumption are tabled, he noted.  

If you’re at-risk of cancer, it is better limit alcohol to prevent cancer. The risk can be further lowered by shunning alcohol.
The exact mechanism of alcohol-induced cancer is still unknown, American Cancer Society explained. The Society believes that alcohol may act on cells as an irritant that causes irreversible damage DNA. The cells that are damaged beyond damage can cause cancer with the influence of cancer-causing agents such as tobacco and alcohol. Alcohol interrupts the synthesis of female hormones like estrogen, a key causative of breast cancer in women. 

Previously reported studies advocated the heart health benefits of moderate drinking. When considering the whole body effect, the risks are ten times more than benefits, Dr. Nelson said. 

In every cancer deaths, every patient is losing an average life span of 18 years. Alcohol accounts for about 6000 male deaths annually and alcohol is one of the causes of mouth cancer, liver, stomach cancer, breast cancer and throat cancers.

The study results were published in the American Journal of Public Health.

Detox diets are dangerous for liver disease patients

Contrary to the popular belief, detox diets are dangerous for liver disease patients and no scientific evidences of health benefits in those patients, according to health experts warning. 

A health survey has been conducted by Hepatitis Australia, and more than 600 people were surveyed. Among the participants, nearly 70% of people believe liver cleansing or detox diets including commercial products being sold in medical shops are beneficial. With credible scientific research evidences, Dr. Simone Strasser, Associate Professor and eminent at Gastroenterological Society of Australia busted the myths of detox diets.

Taking detox diets once a year offer no health benefits and not liver protective. Instead of taking detox diets once-a-year, people should change the lifestyle habits including diet and sedentary lifestyle, Dr. Simone said.

Liver is the main organ that stores fat and the so-called detox diets have no biological role against fat build up. However, detox foods actually did not cleanse the liver as no toxins are synthesized or stored in liver, Dr. Simone added.

Actually, detox foods are harmful in clinically diagnosed liver disease patients. Rapid and hasty weight loss may increase build up of fat in the liver that could worsen the symptoms and progression of fatty liver disease, the expert concluded.

Fatty liver disease cause swelling and permanent scarring with inflammation of liver that result in liver cancer and cirrhosis – a liver disease that can also cause by excessive alcoholism.

Health conscious people often believe the myth and do one-off rejuvenation by detox diets. However, rapid and quick-fix methods are not advisable for good liver health, says Dr. Helen Tyrell, Head of Hepatitis Australia.

Balanced diet, normal body weight and limited consumption of alcohol can keep the liver healthy and disease-free.

Tomato Juice is a good post-workout health drink

A recent research study published in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology suggested that tomato juice is a good post-workout health drink that helps the body to rejuvenate rapidly than other post-workout energy drinks. Active bio-substances in tomato juice such as lycopene and other anti-oxidants can help the body to recover and regain body glucose levels, muscular posture after post-workout stress and strain.

A collaborative study conducted by food scientists and health experts from Greece studied body response including vital signs of 15 sports players and the parameters of pre and post-workout were analyzed over a period of two months.

Among the participants, nine athletes were given tomato juice as post-workout drink, and other received their regular, commercial, fizzy, post-workout energy drink.

When compared to the fizzy post-workout energy drink receivers, tomato juice receivers had regained normal blood glucose levels rapidly. After strenuous exercise, the levels of post-workout muscle recovery were also quicker in tomato juice receivers.

According to scientists, tomatoes are rich in lycopene, an anti-oxidant and alkaloid that give characteristic bright red color to tomato. The researchers reported tomato juice was highly effective against the post-workout body toxins in just two months of treatment.

The scientists noted that post-workout induced stress enzymes can contribute to muscular and brain damage. The powerful anti-oxidant property of tomato juice can prevent the activity of harmful stress biochemicals, and help the body to regain normal functions.

The anti-oxidant properties of tomatoes were well documented, and it can prevent several degenerative and life-threatening diseases such as cancer, heart diseases etc.

Regular exercise can reduce the risk of prostate cancer in Caucasians

A recent research study conducted by US scientists found regular workout can reduce the risk of prostate cancer in Caucasians. The study results were published in CANCER, an esteemed peer-reviewed International journal of American Cancer Society. The same study did not found any exercise-related benefits in black men with prostate cancer, and the underlying cause is yet to be studies. 

When compared to white men, Afro-American men are prone to cancer and exercise can influence the risk of prostate cancer in white males. Scientists believe genetic influences in prostate cancer cells could be a possible reason for the racial disparity.

A team of researchers guided by Dr. Lionel Bañez from Durham Veteran Affairs Medical Center conducted a medical survey has been conducted and physical activity of the participants and based on exercise activities they were classified as highly active, moderately active, mild active and sedentary lifestyle individual. Around 307 participants including 143 blacks and 164 whites were participated. The participants underwent prostate biopsy to diagnose risk, incidence and stage of prostate cancer. The survey questionnaire evaluated the number of exercise work out hours per week.

The study results found highly or moderately active Caucasian white men were less prone to prostate cancer by statistically significant rate of 53%. The rate is far better than men who were mildly active or sedentary. However, the exercise-related positive association was found mainly in Caucasian but not in Afro-Americans.

The researchers are working to explore the association between exercise and tumor grades in prostate cancer patients.

Previous research studies found, when compared to patients who had regular exercise, the progression of prostate cancer to advanced stages is more unlikely in about 13% of patients. Advanced stage of prostate cancer is diagnosed based on uncontrolled cancer progression and spread to distant organs.
Evidence-based medical research studies found vigorous exercises in male cancer patients can likely cut cancer-related deaths in males.
No concrete beneficial effects were found in Afro-Americans, said Dr. Lionel said. The race-associated factors of prostate cancer progression and regular exercise are to studied further with special reference to Afro-Americans, Dr. Lionel added.

High supplemental calcium linked with risk of heart disease

Calcium supplementation becomes one of the daily nutritional supplements of elderly people, just because of its bone health promoting property. However, most people are unaware of the calcium supplement’s dark side. Several research studies suggested high doses of calcium supplements can cause heart diseases. Actually, most of the elderly people are being unaware about these side effects, and taking calcium supplements without consulting a healthcare provider. 

The study suggested that supplemental calcium do not cause heart diseases in women, and dietary calcium is not associated with incidences of CVD in both sexes. 

A team of US scientists evaluated a large number of population involving more than 388000 participants, both sexes aged between 50-71 years. The study results found supplemental calcium but not dietary calcium caused increased incidences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in men. However, the effect was not observed in women participants. 

The researchers suggested for further studies to explore the links between sex differences, calcium supplements and risk of CVD. Apart from bone health, it is important to assess the other effects of the supplement, the researchers wrote in the publication. 

The study participants were followed-up over a period of twelve years, and nearly 7904 male and 3874 female CVD-related mortalities were reported. Among them, around 51% men and 70% women were on calcium supplementation.

When compared to non-takers, men taking more than 1 gm of daily calcium supplementation are prone to CVD risk and death. However, no risk of stroke-related events was observed in men.  

The study results were published in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA).

Tattooing can cause skin cancer!

Globally, tattooing is one of the fashioning efforts in teenagers, young adults and even in elderly people. Contrary to claims of tattooing artists, tattooing can significantly raise the risk of skin cancer and other blood-borne infections, healthcare professionals have warned.                                                                    
The medical community warns that tattooing inks, particularly blue coloured ink contains skin cancer causing poisonous elements and/or metals including aluminum and cobalt. Conventionally, blue colour ink is a preferential choice of tattoo artists. However, it can cause significant risk of skin cancer. Other tattoo inks like red ink may contain mercurial sulphide and other colors have many heavy metals like cadmium, nickel, chromium and lead that are potential causes of skin cancer.

Professional tattoo artists always use organic inks that are imported from Australia, US and UK. Some artists use cheap inks that are Chinese-made and it can cause allergic reactions and increase risk of infections. Some people may have a mild form of skin inflammation with pain for few days after tattooing.

The skin specialists also warn about the potential risks of tattoo removing that can cause skin darkening or loss of natural skin color.

According to Dr. Tula, Consultant Plastic Surgeon, the tools used in tattooing can pose a significant risk of skin cancers and dreadful infections like viral jaundiceand HIV. However, not everyone will get skin cancer, but the risk is more if the artist uses arsenic or chromium containing inks. The young people are not aware of the risks of skin cancer and skin damage that are associated with certain deep penetration designs, he said.

The experts warned against tattooing near a mole that may cause skin cancer or other types of cancers. Just because, the tattooing can camouflage the changes in mole color, texture and size that can be a sign of skin cancer. The doctors advise people to choose hygienic tattoo centers to avoid infections. They also warn against tattooing in upper shoulders and between the chest ribs.

Increased sugar intake linked with incidence of cancer

For vital health, we need to take of optimal level of sugars as carbohydrates from diet and sucrose or fructose from fruits, candies and other sources. On the other side, increased intake or persistently higher levels of sugar in the blood can damage our cells that not only cause diabetes mellitus (type-2) and also cancer. Sound weird?

                                                         It’s true!

The underlying association between diabetes and overweight is well studied by the medical community. Concrete evidences suggested that increased intake of any form of sugar with a sedentary lifestyle leads to diabetes and obesity (overweight). However, the link between obesity, diabetes and cancer is being understudied and of paramount importance. According to medical geographical studies, diabetics are more prone to intestine (digestive system) or pancreatic cancer than normal individuals. In European countries including Britain and Spain, childhood obesity is alarmingly increasing and hence increasing risk of cancer should be considered as a major public healthcare problem.
A team of Spanish scientists led by Dr. Custodia Garcia-Jimenez from University Rey Juan Carlos studied the molecular associative mechanisms of cancer and high sugar levels. The team found higher levels of blood sugar triggers a cancer progression controlling genetic material (β-catenin) by means of activation of gene-activating intestinal hormone, Gastrointestinal Polypeptide (GIP). 

In moderate blood sugar level, the GIP synthesis is regulated by pancreas and β-catenin activity is controlled. In prolonged, uncontrolled levels of blood sugar leads to uncontrolled activation of β-catenin that prevents normal cell death process or apoptosis. In clinical terms, absence of cell death leads to rapid cell multiplication which is commonly called as CANCER. 

The impact of dietary sugar on development of cancer is staggering, said Dr. Custodia. The team is being investigating the influence of other dietary causatives of cancer. Modification of dietary habits is the easiest way to prevent the occurrence of the dreadful disease, Dr. Custodia added. 

Diabetes and cancer are the leading non-communicable killer diseases all around the world. According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), around 366 million people have diabetes in 2011 that could rise to 552 million by 2030. One in three cancer cases can be prevented by dietary changes, regular exercises and leading a healthy lifestyle.

Magnesium and Heart Diseases

Magnesium and Heart Diseases

Contrary to conventional belief, not cholesterol and increased lipids levels, decreased level of blood magnesium is linked with heart diseases. The serum magnesium can be a good diagnostic marker for heart diseases. Several research studies have linked low magnesium levels with incidences of blood vessels thickening, elevated blood pressure, deposition of cholesterol (plaques) in large blood vessel walls, increased blood cholesterol levels and thickening of blood vessels (arteriosclerosis).

A meta-analysis of research publications way back from 1937 to recent studies has been conducted Dr. Andrea Rosanoff and her team. The team analyzed the association of low magnesium levels and incidences of heart diseases based on the studies over a period of four decades. 

The analyses found a statistically significant link between decreased serum magnesium levels and cardiovascular diseases. The research studies published in 1957 strongly suggested the association between magnesium and incidences of cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis). However, most of the experts believed cholesterol, and high-saturated fats as real culprits and importance of magnesium were ignored. 

Magnesium is vital for healthy metabolic activity, and it controls blood pressure, said Dr. Mehmet Oz, Professor of Surgery at Columbia University and popular host of Dr. Oz Show. Most people are not getting recommended dietary allowance of magnesium and become magnesium deficient, he added. 

Recommendations based on studies:

  • Avoid processed foods which are low in magnesium and other essential nutrients.
  • Consume legumes, cereals and nuts that are rich in magnesium
  • Do not avoid nuts to avoid calories and fats – actually they’re rich in magnesium!
  • Magnesium deficient mothers give birth to magnesium deficient children – A less-studied medical research topic!
  • Individuals who work in stressful jobs need magnesium-rich diet.
  • Calcium supplements without balanced with magnesium can cause serious heart diseases

What causes heart attack?

What causes heart attack? It is a million dollar question to many people, worldwide. Heart attack is a painful, life-threatening and often fatal medical condition that needs immediate medical attention. Heart attack is a multi-factorial disease that is clinically classified as modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, fat-rich diet, high blood cholesterol levels, sedentary lifestyle, overweight etc. These risk factors can be modified by changes in lifestyle, dietary modifications, medications and physical activity. The non-modifiable risk factors such as age, familial inheritance and gender, can significantly contribute to heart attacks that cannot be modified by lifestyle changes and medical interventions. All the risk factors affect the blood supply to a healthy heart muscles that result in heart attack.

The risk factors contribute to the deposition of cholesterol (plaques) and development of blot clots in one or more blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. If the plaque and blood clots are big, the blood supply to heart muscles is interrupted, and heart attack ensues. If the block is small in size, it results in increased blood pressure or hypertension. If left untreated, uncontrolled blood pressure can lead to heart attack.

Blood Vessels in Heart:

Blood vessels play a vital role in keeping the heart beating. For healthy blood circulation, the blood vessels should not constrict or become clogged with cholesterol deposition. Similar to other muscles in the body, the heart muscles need continuous oxygen supply to keep beating. The heart contains a muscle protein called myoglobin that acts as oxygen reserve during oxygen demand. However, the reserve lasts for only few minutes and interrupted blood supply causes lack of oxygen supply or ischemia that leads to heart attack.

Blocked Blood Vessels:

Decreased or diminished blood supply results in lack of oxygen supply to the heart muscles that cause myocardial infarction or heart attack. During a heart attack, impaired blood supply causes irreversible damage or death of a portion of heart muscles, which is termed, as infarction. The blocked blood vessel is called as atherosclerotic artery.  

Usually in bleeding process, the body tries to stop the bleeding by the mediation of blood clotting factor called platelet. The platelet adheres with the clotting factors such as fibrin and stops blood oozing by forming a mesh-like structure. This is the body’s natural defense mechanism against blood loss. On the other side, it causes the heart attack. 

Both types of risk factors cause gradual deposition of plaques in large blood vessels. During blood vessel complete block, the body’s immune defense system attacks the plaques to clear the clogged blood vessels. The attack results in unsuccessful clearance of plaques and bleeding of blood vessel walls that cause bleeding. The bleeding process attracts the platelets and blood clotting starts. Within few minutes, the platelets and fibrin completely arrest the bleeding and also the blood supply to heart muscles through blood vessels. This results in diminished blood supply and starvation of oxygen in heart muscles that lead to heart attack. 

In response to death of heart muscles, the nerves in heart cells reacts awkwardly that causes vomiting sensation, sweating, pain, increased heart beats and clammy skin. If one feels these symptoms, it can be a warning sign of heart attack and he/she should seek immediate medical care. Without timely medical assistance, the heart attack victim may die, depending on the degree of heart muscle damage.